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Eiffel Tower France Tourism



Eiffel Tower (French: Tour Eiffel, / tuʀ ɛfɛl /) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars on the banks of the River Seine in Paris. The tower has become a global icon of France and one of the world famous structure.

introduction




Named after its designer, engineer Gustave Eiffel, the Eiffel Tower is the tallest building in Paris and one of the world famous structure. More than 200,000,000 people have visited the tower since its construction in 1889,  including 6,719,200 person-years 2006,  making it the monument cost the most visited in the world. Including the antenna as high as 24 m (79 ft), this structure has a height of 325 m (1063 ft) since 2000, the same as conventional building multilevel 81.

When the tower was completed in 1889, it became the tallest structure in the world - which retained the title until 1930 when the Chrysler Building in New York City (319 m - 1047 feet) was completed. The tower is now the fifth-tallest in France and the highest in Paris, with the second highest structure of the Tour Montparnasse (210 m - 689 ft), although it would be surpassed by Tour AXA (225.11 m - 738.36 ft).



The metal structure of the Eiffel Tower weighs 7300 tons while the entire structure including non-metal components weighs 10,000 tons. Depending on the temperature, the spire can be away from the sun 18 cm (7 inches) due to expansion of iron on the part facing the sun. The tower is also swinging 6-7 cm (2-3 inches) in a windy atmosphere. As a demonstration of the economy of the building, when 7300 tons of metal structure were melted, it would fill 125 square meters with a depth of 6 cm (2:36 inches), which mean density of 7.8 tonnes of iron per cubic meter. The tower has a mass less than the mass of air in the cylinder with the same dimensions,  and 88.3 324 meters radius. 10,100 tons of heavy tower when compared with 10,265 tons of air.

The first and second levels are accessible by stairs and elevator. A ticket booth at the south tower base sells tickets to the stairs which begin at that location. In the first platform the stairs continue up from the east tower and the third level summit is only accessible by elevator. From the first or second platform the stairs open to all people who go up and down depending on if they have bought lift tickets or tickets households. Number 9 steps to the ticket counter at the base, 328 to the first level, 340 to the second level and 18 to the platform elevator at the second level. When out of the elevator on the third level there are 15 steps up to the upper observation platform. The number of steps printed periodically on the side stairs to give an indication of the ascent. Most of the ascent to the scene directly beneath and around the tower although short steps beebrapa closed.




Treatment consists of procurement of tower 50 to 60 tons of paint every seven years to keep it from rusting. To maintain the appearance of the visitors below, three different colors used on the tower, with a dark color on the bottom and the lightest on top. Paint color changed; the tower is painted brown-gray. At the first level there is an interactive console that tells the colors on the next painting. The architect of the Eiffel Tower are Emile Nouguier, Maurice Koechlin and Stephen Sauvestre.

History






The structure was built between 1887 and 1889 as the entrance to the Exposition Universelle, the World Exposition that celebrated the French Revolution a century. Eiffel originally planned to build the tower in Barcelona, for the Universal Exposition of 1888, but the responsible parties in Barcelona city hall thought strange and expensive, and does not fit the city. After the rejection of Plan of Barcelona, ​​Eiffel send the draft to the parties responsible for the Universal Exposition in Paris, where he built the tower a year later, in 1889. The tower was inaugurated on March 31, 1889, and opened on May 6. Three hundred workers joined together 18,083 Embedded metal parts (pure form of structural iron), using two and a half million nails, in the structural form by Maurice Koechlin. The risk of accident was great, to the modern skyscrapers the tower is open without any intermediate floors except the two platforms. However, because Eiffel took a cautious stance, including the use of the moving pulley block, track and display aids, only one person who died.

The tower is getting criticism from the public when it was built, called it disturbing eyes. Daily newspapers are filled with letters of criticism from the art community in Paris. One of them included in U.S. Government Publishing Office of William Watson of the Paris Universal Exposition: Civil Engineering, Public Works, and Architecture 1892. "And for twenty years we have seen, runs through the town, still lived by the genius of the centuries, we see a black shadowy expanse of black columns, constructed of iron spikes. The signing of this letter include Messonier , Gounod, Garnier, Gerome, Bougeureau, and Dumas.
Author of the novel [{Guy de Maupassant]] - who hate the tower - the Tower restaurant lunch every day. When asked why, he replied that it was the only place in Paris where we can not see the Tower. Today, still regarded as a striking piece of structural art.
One cliché Hollywood films showing the view from the window of Paris who always appeared the tower. In fact, since the height limitation of buildings in Paris to 7 stories, only a few taller buildings have a clear view of the tower.



Eiffel tower have permission to stand for 20 years, which means it must be dismantled in 1909, when ownership transferred to the City of Paris. The city had planned to tear it down (part of the original contest rules for designing a tower that could be easily demolished) but as the tower proved extremely profitable in terms of communication, the tower was left standing after the permit expires. Military use to set the cab on the front lines of Paris during the First Battle of the Marne, and the battle was a victory monument.

Shape of the Tower





When the tower was built many people were surprised with a challenging form. Eiffel was criticized for design and forced to try to design something artsy, or no art from the side view, with no desire to build. Eiffel and his engineers, known as a bridge builder, see the interests of wind forces and knew that they would build the tallest structure in the world they have to match the wind. In an interview reported in the newspaper Le Temps, Eiffel said:


"Now for what I give the main reasons for its design? The tower is windproof. All right! I certify that the curvature of the four outer sides of the tower, as mathematical calculation (...) will give a good view of the strength and beauty, and gives the impression to anyone who saw the overall sophistication of design. "
-Translated from the French newspaper Le Temps on February 14, 1887.


The shape of the tower had previously been expressed by mathematical calculation windproof. Several theoretical calculations have been planned for years, most recently the different nonlinear integral equation is based on the balancing of wind pressure from any side of the tower with the tension between the construction elements at that time. The shape is exponential. Plot dangerous in the arch of the tower, featuring two different exponents, the bottom has a strong defense against the wind

installation




Since the beginning of the 20th century, this tower has been used for radio transmission. Until the 1950s, a collection of wires extending from the tower until the meeting ends on Avenue de Suffren and Champ de Mars. They are connected with long-wave transmitters in small bunkers; in 1909, a permanent underground radio center was built near the south pillar and still exists today. [Citation needed] On 20 November 1913, Paris Observatory, using the Eiffel Tower as an antenna, sending a signal without cable with the Observation Center for the United States Navy which used an antenna in Arlington, Virginia. Object transmission to measure the difference in longitude between Paris and Washington, DC

The tower has two restaurants: Altitude 95, on the first level (95 m, 311 feet above sea level), and Jules Verne, an expensive gastronomical restaurant on the second level, with a special elevator. This restaurant has one star in the Michelin Red Guide. In January 2007, a chef with a Michelin star Alain Ducasse many brought to the Tower to run Jules Verne.



Observation deck on top, with a height of 275 meters, is the highest area of ​​architectural structures in the EU are open to the public. [Citation needed]
Passenger lifts from ground level to the first level are operated by the towing cable and run by large piston-powered water. When climbing the arch, the cabin elevator up slightly, but with a surprise up every few seconds, to keep the level of alignment. Construction of the elevator shown and opened to the public in a museum in one of the four pillars of the tower.


event

On 10 September 1889, Thomas Edison visited the tower. He signed the guest book with the following message-
"To Mr. Eiffel the Engineer the brave builder of modern architecture and original from someone who gives great appreciation for all Engineers including the Great Engineer the Bon Dieu, Thomas Edison. "
In 1902, the tower was struck by lightning (see photo at right). Peak height of 100 m (330 ft) to be rebuilt and the lights illuminating the tower to be replaced soon.

Father Theodor Wulf in 1910 observed that emit energy emitted at the top and bottom of the tower, find the top more than expected, and initiated what is now called cosmic rays.

Dated February 4, 1912, Austrian tailor Franz Reichelt died after jumping 60 feet from the first deck of Eiffel tower with a homemade parachute.


In 1925, the painter Victor Lustig "sold" the tower is as old iron.
In 1930, the tower lost his title as the world's tallest structure when the Chrysler Building was completed in New York City.
Since 1925 until 1934, billboard for Citroën meet three of the four sides of the tower, making it the tallest billboard in the world at that time.
Before the Nazi occupation of Paris in 1940, elevator cable was cut by the French so that Adolf Hitler must climb the stairs to the top. The parts to fix it impossible to obtain because of the war. In 1940 Nazi soldiers had to climb up to fly the swastika, but the flag was so large that the wind a few hours later, and replaced by a little. When visiting Paris, Hitler chose below. It is said that Hitler had mastered French, rather than the Eiffel Tower. A French measure of the tower during the German occupation to fly the French flag. In August 1944, when the Allies approached Paris, Hitler ordered General Dietrich von Choltitz, the military governor of Paris, demolish the tower along with the entire city. Von Choltitz refused the order. Tower Elevator normal working hours after the Liberation of Paris.



Dated January 3, 1956, a fire burned the top of the tower.
In 1957, the radio antenna is added on top.
In the 1980s, an old restaurant and demolished the foundations of iron; purchased and rebuilt in St. Charles Avenue in New Orleans, Louisiana, by businessman John Onorio and Daniel Bonnot, called the Tour Eiffel Restaurant, more commonly known as the Red Room. The restaurant is made back than 11,000 crossed the Atlantic in a cargo container 40 feet (12 m).
Dated March 31, 1984, Robert Moriarty flew a Beechcraft Bonanza through the arches under the tower.

In the film the action / adventure of the 1985 James Bond A View to a Kill, Sir Roger Moore as James Bond chasing May Day played by actress Grace Jones at the Eiffel Tower. He parachute from the structure to escape. Video movie theme song, sung by Duran Duran, also included several scenes of the band singing in the tower that clashed with scenes from the movie. 20 years earlier, Bond movie Thunderball (1985) shows the tower when Largo, played by Adolfo Celi, parked outside Specter's office in Paris.
Dated July 14, 1995, Bastille Day, French musician Jean Michel Jarre synthesisers Concert for Concern in the tower without the assistance of UNESCO. This free concert is visited by 1.5 million people, meet the Champ-de-Mars. The concert featured lighting and projection effects in the tower, and a giant fireworks outside. 3 years later, he returned the same for other music events, Electronic Night.




On New Year Celebration 2000, the Eiffel Tower Millennium Celebrations organized Paris. Fireworks fired from the entire length of the tower in a spectacular appearance. An exhibition at the cafeteria on the first level as well celebrate.
In 2000, flashing lights and four high-powered beacon mounted on the tower. Since then the light show has become a daily event every night. Beacon atop the tower make it a beacon tower in Paris the night sky.
The tower is welcoming guests to 200 million in 2002.
At 19:20 on July 22, 2003, fire broke out at the top of the tower in preparation for the broadcast. The entire tower is emptied; fire under control 40 minutes, and there are no reports of injuries.
Since 2004, the Eiffel Tower has made the field in the first ice skating during the winter.

72 names

Gustave Eiffel's tower perpetuate the seventy-two names of scientists, engineers and other French celebrities. The names were removed at the beginning of the 20th century but restored originally in 1986-1987 by Société Nouvelle d'Exploitation de la Tour Eiffel, a company contracted to operate business related to the Tower.

claims of copyright images

Figure tower has long been a common domain, but, in 2003 SNTE (Société nouvelle d'exploitation de la tour Eiffel) installed a new lighting on the tower. This effect is aimed at making the other night image and appearance of the lighting tower under copyright. As a result, no longer allowed to distribute photographs of the tower at night without permission in some countries.




Granting copyright is controversial. Director of Documentation for SNTE, Stéphane Dieu, commented in January 2005, "It is only intended to keep the commercial use of images, so it is not used in ways that we do not approve of." However, it also may have the effect of prohibiting tourist photographs of the tower at night is spread [23] also distributing images that do not aim for profit and semi-commercial to the tower.
In the latest decision, the Court of Cassation stated that copyright can not be claimed against the image that covers the building where the copyrighted cover photograph a larger area. This indicates that SNTE can not claim copyright in the photograph in Paris which includes the appearance of the tower.
In some jurisdictions, this copyright claim is not allowed. In copyright law of the Republic of Ireland, the work "done permanently in a public place or place open to the public" can be entered freely on the visual reproduction.


Documentation of the Eiffel Tower

Built within the framework of the World Exhibition last week and the celebration of the French Revolution, the tower with the flag fluttering at its peak was inaugurated on March 31, 1889. Despite the harsh criticism and protests from residents of Paris and intellectuals during construction, the metal has become a symbol of Paris, attracting more than 6 million visitors every year.



Project leader: Gustave Eiffel was assisted by, among other things, the engineers Maurice Koechlin and Emile Nouguier and Stephen Sauvestre as an architect.

Plan project began in 1884. Despite all the obstacles above, Development of the tower began in 1887 and was completed 26 months later in 1889. Planned tower will be demolished after the course of the World Exhibition 1900. However, experimental work of radio transmission that is controlled by the French Army before the days of restoration ultimately save the Eiffel tower.




Materials used: Iron steel was associated in the form of crosses from 18 038 seeds fortified with 2.5 million nails. Framework of the work of Gustave Eiffel and although this windproof material of iron, the weight of the tower is only 7300 tons.

Height: From soil to the flagpole height 312.27 meter in 1889, is now 324 meters with antennae. At present, various French television companies to install their antennas on top of the Eiffel Tower.

Paris is owned by Local Government and managed by private companies, "Société Nouvelle d'Exploitation de la Tour Eiffel", the metal structure is renovated every 7 years and painted with 50 tons of paint. If the workers who worked on renovations manguasai alpinis and acrobatic sport.

Lighting: "Iron Girl" is illuminated by 352 watts and 1000 projectors flashing every sengah hours at night with 20,000 light bulbs and 800 disco lights.



In order to make the tower seem more alive, 4 laser xenon lamp 6000 watts of power revolve permanently at the top of the tower.

Number of households: 1665 ladder for visitors who enjoy sports. There are two lifts which go up to level two which could be found various souvenir shops.


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