In addition to the ' wooden horse ' , the historical record Kelud eruptions also occur in 13-15 century AD Based on a paper written by Akhmad Zaennudin and Darwin Siregar (IAGI 2008) , the eruption that occurred at that time the explosive eruptions large enough to precipitate the phreatic material , pyroclastic flows and pyroclastic fallout fairly thick .
Kelud eruption was very powerful , thousands of people thronged the streets on the slopes Kelud to the evacuation site . They are from several villages in the district Ngancar . For now, the citizens of District Headquarters Ngancar placed in Tawang in District Wates , Kediri . Evakuasipun process is still ongoing to this day .
Let us pray for our brothers a
This volcano, including the type of explosive eruption stratovulkan characteristics . Like many other volcanoes in Java , Kelud formed by the subduction of the Indo - Australian continental plate against the Eurasian plate . Since the year 1300 AD , it was recorded active mountain range erupted at relatively short intervals ( 9-25 years ) , making it the volcanoes are harmful to humans .
The specificity of this volcano is the crater lake ( until late 2007 ) which makes very liquid lava eruptions and endanger the surrounding population . As a result of the activities that gave rise to the 2007 lava dome , crater lake almost gone and left a sort of puddle water .
Peak - peak current is the remainder of the eruption of the past that brought down the top of the ancient . Wall on the southwest side open so complex crater collapse toward the opening . Kelud is the highest peak , positioned slightly to the northeast of the crater . The tops of the other is on the west side Gajahmungkur Peak and Peak chippy on the south side .
Note Kelud activity
Since the 15th century , Kelud has claimed more than 15,000 lives. The explosion was in 1586 claiming more than 10,000 lives. A system to divert the lava flow has been made extensively in 1926 and still functioning until now after the eruption in 1919 claimed thousands of lives due to cold lava flood swept settlements population .
In the 20th century , recorded Kelud erupted in 1901 , 1919 ( May 1 ) , 1951 , 1966 , and 1990 . This pattern brings experts volcano on 15-year cycle for this eruption . Entering the 21st century , the mountain erupted in 2007 , 2010, and 2014 . This change in frequency is due to the formation of a lava plug in the mouth of the crater .
eruption in 1919
This eruption is among the most deadly since claimed 5,160 lives, damage to 15,000 hectares of productive land due to lava flow reach 38 km , although in time the Rhinos have built retaining lava dam in 1905 . Besides Hugo Cool in 1907 also assigned a dig a channel through the embankment or the western part of the crater wall . The effort was successfully issued 4.3 million cubic meters of water
Since the eruption of the duct system is then constructed crater lake drainage tunnel , and was completed in 1926 . Overall built seven tunnels . In the period after independence the new tunnel was built after the eruption of 1966 , 45 meters below the old tunnel . The tunnel is completed in 1967 it was named the Ampera Tunnel . This channel serves to maintain the volume of the crater lake to keep 2.5 million cubic meters .
The eruption in 1990
The eruption in 1990 lasted for 45 days , which is February 10, 1990 until March 13, 1990 . In this eruption , spewing Kelud 57.3 million cubic meters of volcanic material . Cold lava spread to 24 kilometers from the crater lake through 11 rivers that disgorge at the mountain .
This eruption could shut down the tunnel Ampera with volcanic material . The new normalization process thaun completed in 1994.
The eruption of 2007
Volcanic activity is increased in late September 2007 and continued until November of the same year , marked by increasing water temperature of the crater lake , an increase in seismic tremor , as well as discoloration of the crater lake of murky greenish white . Status " alert " ( highest ) issued by the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation since October 16, 2007 which implicates the population within a radius of 10 km from the mountain ( approximately 135,000 people) living on the slopes of the volcano to evacuate . However, the eruption did not occur .
Having had somewhat subsided , Kelud activity again increased since October 30, 2007 with a rapid increase in water temperature of the crater lake and shallow volcanic seismicity . On November 3, 2007 around 16:00 lake water temperature exceeds 74 degrees Celsius , well above the normal symptoms of the eruption of 40 degrees Celsius , causing the temperature gauge was broken . Vibration amplitude seismic tremor with large ( more than 35mm ) lead inspection officials had to evacuate , but again no eruption .
Due to the high activity of these symptoms occur uniquely in the history of the emergence of Kelud with thick white smoke from the crater lake of lava dome followed by the middle of the crater lake since November 5, 2007 and continues to " grow " up to size 100 m wide . Experts consider this lava dome so that clogging of magma eruption is not imminent . Energy to be used to encourage the eruption of lava dome eruptions rest of 1990.
Since the incident energy release activity on the wane and on November 8, 2007 Kelud status downgraded to " standby " ( level 3 ) .
Crater Lake Kelud practical " lost " due to the emergence of a large lava dome . What was left was a small pool of water murky brown in the south side of the lava dome .
The eruption in 2014
Having in mind the increase in activity since the end of 2013 , Kelud raised its status to alert on February 10, 2014 and then Watch it on February 13, 2014 at 21:15 pm . Type of explosive eruptions such as in 1990 ( in 2007 the type effusive , in the form of magma flow ) is predicted to occur after heavy rains enough gravel perceived district residents in the area . Ngandar , Kediri , East Java , the location where the famous active volcano is located , even up to the town of Pare , Kediri . The area used as a point of refuge Wates residents living within a radius of up to 10 kilometers from the lava dome according to the recommendations of the Center for Volcanology , Mitigation , and Geological Hazard ( PVMBG ) . Also occasionally volcanic activity rumbling sounds to the District . Jombang . The impact of any form of volcanic ash on February 14, 2014 early morning residents reportedly have reached Kab . Roxburgh.
The eruption in 2014
The eruption in 2014 was detected by PVMBG and responded with an increase in status to Alert ( level II ) . On February 10, increased to standby status ( Level III ) , and the preparations of the disaster has begun . Regions around 5 km from the cusp of the crater has been sterilized of human activity . On February 13, at 21 dimumkan status of supreme danger , Caution ( Level IV ) , so that the radius of 10 km from the summit to be emptied of humans . Not yet had the displacement , at 22:40 there has been an explosion type eruptions ( explosive ) .
Reported the sound of explosions could be heard from the city of Yogyakarta ( 200 km ) , even Purbalingga ( approximately 300 miles ) , Central Java .
Linkages history and culture
The mountain is recorded in the period of classical texts such as Indonesia and Travel Pararaton Bujangga Manik as Mount Ka ( m ) pud and become the object of veneration . Holy Goddess figures Kili and Anglingdarma associated with this mountain .
Kelud 2012. 2007 lava dome appeared in the middle , with a peak Kelud background . On the left is part of the Peak Gajahmungkur .
Towards the summit area since 2004 Kelud road ties have improved to facilitate the tourists as well as residents . Kelud has become a tourist attraction Kediri with the main attraction is the lava dome . At the top of the viewing post Gajahmungkur built with stairs made of cement . On weekend evenings , given the lava dome lighting colorful lights . Moreover, it has also provided a climbing lane at the top cleft , thermal baths , as well as flying fox .
Kediri action build the tourist area of Blitar protests , which considers the region a peak Kelud region . Dispute is mainly tapered region after the fall of East Java Governor Decree No. 188/113/KPTS/013/2012 stating that Kelud peak region is a region of Kediri .