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Showing posts with label History. Show all posts
Showing posts with label History. Show all posts

Place Of Pilgrimage Sunan Ampel

Sunan Ampel
Sunan Ampel-Grave of Sunan Ampel was in Kelurahan, Kecamatan Ampel Semampir, Surabaya, East Java Municipality. Due to its location in the middle of the city, the tomb of Sunan Ampel easily accessible by four-wheeled vehicles And two-wheelers. this place many arriving pilgrims who want to visit the grave of Sunan Ampel.

The tomb of Raden Mohammad Ali Rahmatullah or better known as Sunan Ampel, located behind the mosque. To reach the Tomb must go through a nine-arch, according to cardinal directions, symbolizing the wali songo or the nine guardians.

Three gate is the original building remains of Sunan Ampel. Grave of Sunan Ampel adjacent to the grave of his first wife, Mrs Condrowati, who was a descendant of King Brawijaya Five.

In the Tomb complex there is also a Sunan Ampel was the Tomb guards and santri-santri Sunan Ampel. Among the tombs of Dharma that add up to nine Mbah. Mbah of Dharma is said to have died nine times, therefore the mausoleum there are nine.

In addition, there is also the tomb of Mbah a daylight raid. During his lifetime, Mbah a name on a daylight raid has Sonhaji, an expert in determining the direction of the winds. Especially for determining the direction of Qibla.

The uniqueness and value of historical Mosque is situated at the pole 16 penyangganya made of teak wood measuring 17 meters without a connection.Bahaya this is still solid, but its age is over 600 years old.

In the pole there are buffer carvings of the ancient Majapahit remains, which means Oneness of God. The mosque has 48 gates which are still the original, one and a half metres in diameter, and height of two metres.

Other buildings that became the hallmark of this mosque is 50 meters tall tower. In the past, the tower serves as a call to prayer. On the Tower there is a dome-shaped verandah of Java, with coat of arms carved Crown-shaped Sun, which is a symbol of the triumph of Majapahit.

In this place there are also historic wells. But now covered with iron.Well water is believed to have advantages such as zamzam in Mecca. Its diverse, which is believed to be a drug. The pilgrims often carried water as souvenirs.

The Route To Reach The Grave Of Sunan Ampel:

For private cars can direct towards Religious Tourism Sunan Ampel. To take a bus from the terminal is Purabaya, further take bus destinations Red Bridge Plaza, go take a taxi or Rickshaw at a cost of around Rp. 8,000. For a train ride can get off at the station and then boarded a rickshaw with Ant it costs IDR 7000.
Makam

History and Biography Sunan Ampel

Sunan Ampel was one member of a awfully giant Walisanga services within the development of Islam in Java. Sunan Ampel was the daddy of the Trustees.From his birth the Islamic preaching in top notch on earth ground. the initial name was Raden Rahmat Sunan Ampel. whereas the term is kewaliannya, sunan title and name it or Denta Ampel Ampel is attributed to his residence, an area close to Surabaya1.

He was born in 1401 A.d. in Champa. consultants to see the problem here, as nonetheless of Champa there's a written statement moreover as an inscription showing the Champa Kingdom in Malacca or Java. Spy Chief Saif ad-Din (1979) are convinced that Champa was another of the Acehnese, Champaca so Champa is in kerejaan space of Aceh. Hamka (1981) holds constant, if it's true that it's not that in Champa Annam, Indo China in accordance Enscyclopaedia Van Nederlandsch Indie, however in Aceh.

Walisongo
Dad or Raden Rahmat Sunan Ampel named Maulana Malik Ibrahim or Maulana Maghribi, that came to be known Sunan Maulana Malik Ibrahim with the term. His mother was the goddess Chandrawulan, siblings, MOM Daughter Dwarawati Raden Murdiningrum Fatah, the wife of the King of Majapahit, Brawijaya v. Wife Sunan Ampel is twofold: the goddess and Goddess Karimah Chandrawati. together with his 1st wife, Goddess, had 2 individuals Karimah kids namely: Goddess Murtasih who became the wife of Raden Fatah (the 1st sultan of Demak Bintoro Kingdom Islam) and Goddess Murtasimah who became the Queen Consort of Raden Paku or Sunan Giri. together with his second wife, the goddess of Chandrawati, Sunan Ampel gained 5 kids, namely: Siti Syare'at, Siti, Siti Mutmainah, Raden Maulana Makdum Sofiah, Ibrahim or Sunan Bonang, and Airport or Raden Kosim became referred to as Sunan Drajat or typically known as Sunan Sedayu.

Sunan Ampel was referred to as being knowledgeable and had high and alim, terribly educated and gained a profound education regarding Islam. Sunan Ampel was additionally known to possess morals are lofty, magnanimous and have high social considerations against social issues.

History of Indonesia





History of the name of Indonesia

Records of past calls between Indochina and islands in Australia by various names.
Chronicles the Chinese call this area as Nan-hai ("the South Sea Islands").
Various records of ancient India Dwipantara named this archipelago ("Isles Overseas Land"), a name derived from the Sanskrit word Dwipa (island) and the (outer, opposite). Poet Valmiki Ramayana tells the search for Sita, Ravana kidnapped Rama's wife, to Suwarnadwipa ("Island of Gold", the island of Sumatra is now estimated to) located in Dwipantara Islands.

The Arabs called the island as Jaza'ir al-Jawi (Java Island). Latin name for frankincense, benzoe, derived from the Arabic name, luban ox ("incense of Java"), because the Arab traders of incense obtain sumatrana Styrax trees that used to grow only in Sumatra. To this day pilgrims we are often called "Java man" by the Arabs, including for people from outside Java, Indonesia once. Also known in Arabic names Samathrah (Sumatra), Sholibis (Sulawesi Island), and Sundah (Sunda) called kulluh Jawi ("all Java").

The Europeans who first came to believe that Asia is only made up of Arabs, Persia, India, and China. For them, the area stretching between Persia and China are all Indian. South Asia peninsula they called "Indian Home" and mainland Southeast Asia called "Indies Back", while the islands gained the name of the Indian Archipelago (Indische Archipel, Indian Archipelago, l'Archipel Indien) or East Indies (Oost Indie, East Indies, Indes Orientales ). Another name that would also use the "Malay Archipelago" (Maleische Archipel, Malay Archipelago, l'Archipel Malais).
Political units that are under the Dutch colonial official names Nederlandsch-Indie (Dutch East Indies). 1942-1945 Japanese occupation authorities use the term to-Indo (East Indies) to refer to conquests in the islands.

Eduard Douwes Dekker (1820-1887), known under the pseudonym Multatuli, never use specific names to mention the islands of Indonesia, namely "Insulinde", which means also "Indian Archipelago" (in Latin "insula" means island). The name "Insulinde" This was less popular, though never a newspaper's name and organization of the movement at the beginning of the 20th century.



In 1847 in Singapore published an annual journal, the Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia (JIAEA, BI: "Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia")), which is managed by James Richardson Logan (1819-1869), a Scotsman who earned his bachelor of law from the University of Edinburgh. Then in 1849 a British ethnologist nation, George Samuel Windsor Earl (1813-1865), joined as editor of the magazine JIAEA.

In 1850, JIAEA volume IV, pages 66-74, Earl wrote an article On the Leading Characteristics of the Papuan, Australian and Malay-Polynesian Nations ("The Leading Characteristics of Papua Nations, Australia and the Malay-Polynesian"). Earl in the article confirms that the time has come for the people of the Indian Archipelago or Malay Archipelago to have a unique name (a distinctive name), it is not appropriate for the Indian name and is often confused with another mention of India. Earl put forward two options name: Indunesia or Malayunesia ("nesos" in Greek means "island"). On page 71 an article was written

"... Residents of the Indian Archipelago or Malay Archipelago each will be" The Indunesia "or" People Malayunesia "".
Earl himself has said choosing a name Malayunesia (Malay Archipelago) than Indunesia (Indian Islands), because Malayunesia very appropriate for the Malay race, while Indunesia can also be used to Ceylon (as Sri Lanka time) and the Maldives (as foreign to the Maldives Islands). Earl also argues that the language used throughout the Malay archipelago. In writing the Earl's use of the term and not use the term Malayunesia Indunesia.

In Volume IV JIAEA also, pages 252-347, James Richardson Logan write an article The Ethnology of the Indian Archipelago ("Ethnology of the Indian Archipelago"). In early writings, Logan also stated the need to name specific to the islands of our homeland, because the term Indian Archipelago ("Indian Islands") is too long and confusing. Logan then picked up the name of Earl Indunesia discarded, and replaced with the letter u letter o that his words better. Thus was born the term Indonesia.

And it proves that some people still believe that the European population in the Indian archipelago, an epithet which is maintained because it was already familiar in Europe.
Indonesia for the first time the word appears in the world with the printed text on  in Logan

"Mr. Earl suggested the term ethnography" Indunesian ", but reject it and support the" Malayunesian ". I prefer a purely geographical term" Indonesia ", which is only a shorter synonym for the islands of the Indian or Indian Islands"

When proposing the name "Indonesia" Logan does not seem to realize that in the future the name will be the official name. Since then Logan has consistently used the name "Indonesia" in scientific writings, and the use of this term is slowly spreading among scientists fields of ethnology and geography.


In 1884 the professor of ethnology at the University of Berlin named Adolf Bastian (1826-1905) published a book Indonesien oder die Inseln Malayischen Archipel des ("Indonesia or islands in the Malay Archipelago") as many as five volumes, containing the results of his research when it wanders the islands in 1864 until 1880. Bastian is the book that popularized the term "Indonesia" among the Dutch scholar, so that could arise assumption that the term "Indonesia" Bastian's creation. Opinion that is not true that, among others listed in the Encyclopedie van Nederlandsch-Indie 1918. In fact, Bastian took the term "Indonesia" is from the writings of Logan.

Natives who first used the term "Indonesia" is Suwardi Suryaningrat (Ki Hajar Dewantara). When discharged to the Netherlands in 1913 he established a press office with the name Indonesische Persbureau.
Indonesisch name (Dutch pronunciation for "Indonesia") is also introduced as a substitute Indies ("Ocean") by Prof. Cornelis van Vollenhoven (1917). Correspondingly, inlander ("native") is replaced by Indonesians ("Indonesian").

Politics

In the decade of the 1920s, the name "Indonesia" is a scientific term in ethnology and geography were taken over by the leaders of Indonesia's independence movement, thus the name "Indonesia" finally has a political meaning, the identity of a people who fight for independence. As a result, the Dutch government began to get suspicious and wary of Logan's use of the word creation.

In 1922 at the initiative of Mohammad Hatta, a student Handels Hoogeschool (Higher School of Economics) in Rotterdam, students and student organizations in the Netherlands East Indies (which formed in 1908 as the Indische Vereeniging) Vereeniging changed its name to Indonesische or Perhimpoenan Indonesia. Their magazine, Indian Poetra, renamed Indonesia Merdeka.

Bung Hatta confirmed in writing,

"State of the upcoming Merdeka Indonesia (de Vrije Indonesische toekomstige staat) impossible-called" Dutch East Indies ". Also not" Indian "course, because it may cause errors with the original India. For us the name of Indonesia declared a political objective (een Politiek Doel ), because they represent and aspire to a homeland in the future, and to make it happen every person Indonesia (Indonesians) will strive with all effort and ability. "

In Indonesia Dr. Sutomo Indonesische Study Club founded in 1924. That year the Indian Communist Union changed its name to the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI). In 1925 Jong Islamieten Bond form Nationaal Indonesische scouting Padvinderij (Natipij). That the three organizations in the country which first used the name "Indonesia". Finally the name "Indonesia" was named the name of homeland, nation, and language of the density-Pemoedi Pemoeda Indonesia dated October 28, 1928, now known as the Youth Pledge.


In August 1939 three members of the Volksraad (People's Council; parliament the Dutch East Indies), Muhammad Husni Thamrin, Wiwoho Purbohadidjojo, and Sutardjo Kartohadikusumo, filed a motion to the Dutch Government that the name was unveiled as the replacement name Indonesie "Nederlandsch-Indie". This request was rejected.
With the occupation of Japan on March 8, 1942, gone are the name of "Dutch East Indies". On August 17, 1945, following the declaration of Independence, was born of the Republic of Indonesia.



History of Indonesia covers a very long time span that began in prehistoric times by the discovery of "Java Man" which was 1.7 million years ago. The period of Indonesian history can be divided into five age: pre-colonial era, the emergence of the kingdoms of the Hindu-Buddhist and Islam in Java and Sumatra, which mainly relies on trade; the Colonial Era, the influx of Europeans (mainly Dutch) who want to spice lead to colonization by Netherlands for about 3.5 centuries between the beginning of the 17th century until the mid-20th century; Era of Independence First, the post-Independence Indonesia (1945) until the fall of Sukarno (1966); Era New Order, 32-year reign of Suharto (1966 -1998) and the Reform Era that lasted until now.


The main article for this section are: the archipelago in the prehistoric period
Geologically, the area of ​​modern Indonesia (for convenience, hereinafter called the Nusantara) a meeting between the three major continental plates: the Eurasian Plate, the Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific Plate (see article Geological Indonesia). Islands of Indonesia as it is currently formed during the melting of ice after the end of the Ice Age, about 10,000 years ago.



Replication of Java Man cranium was first discovered in the Sangiran
In the Pleistocene, when it was still connected to mainland Asia, entered the first settlers. The first evidence that indicates the earliest inhabitants were Homo erectus fossils from Java Man is the 2 million to 500,000 years ago. The discovery of the remains "Flores man" (Homo floresiensis) in Liang Bua, Flores, opening the possibility of survival is still H. erectus until the last Ice Age.

Homo sapiens first entered the archipelago from the estimated 100,000 years ago through the coastal strip of Asia West Asia, and at about 60 000 to 70 000 years ago has reached New Guinea and Australia. [3] Those who berfenotipe dark skin and curly hair meeting, the ancestors of indigenous Melanesians (including Papua) now and bring the culture of hatchet shaped (Paleolithic). Waves of Austronesian-speaking immigrants to come in waves Neolithic culture since 3000 BC from southern China through Formosa and the Philippines took a square pickaxe culture (Dong Son culture). This migration process is part of the occupation of the Pacific. Mongoloid population characterized by the arrival of this wave tends to the west, urged residents to the east early or spouse mixed with the locals and to the physical characteristics of the population and the Maluku Nusa Tenggara. These immigrants brought with agricultural techniques, including rice cultivation in paddy fields (at the latest evidence since the 8th century BC), raising buffalo, bronze and iron processing, weaving techniques, megalithic practices, as well as the worship of spirits ( animism) as well as sacred objects (dynamism). In the first century BC had formed settlements and small kingdoms, and it may have entered India due to the influence of the trust trade relationship.

 pre-colonial era


 Early history


See also: History of the archipelago
Indian scholars have written about Dwipantara or Dwipa Java Hindu kingdom in Java and Sumatra around 200 BC. Initial physical evidence that says about the character of Hinduism in the two kingdoms of the 5th century, namely: The Kingdom of the master Tarumanagara West Java and the Kingdom of the Mahakam River in the coastal Kutai, Kalimantan. In the year 425 Buddhism has reached the region.
At a time when Europe entered the Renaissance, the archipelago has had a legacy of thousands of years old civilizations with two great kingdoms that Srivijaya in Sumatra and Majapahit in Java, coupled with dozens of small kingdoms which often become more powerful neighbors vazal or connected in some kind of bond trading ( as in the Moluccas).

 Hindu-Buddhist kingdom

 History of the archipelago in the Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms era


Heritage monument inscription of King Purnawarman Taruma
At the 4th century until the 7th century in West Java are patterned Hindu-Buddhist kingdom is the kingdom Tarumanagara followed by Sunda kingdom until the 16th century. During the 7th century until the 14th century, Buddhist Srivijaya kingdom in Sumatra growing rapidly. Explorers Chinese I Ching visited the capital of Palembang around the year 670. At their peak, the Srivijaya controlled as far as West Java and the Malay Peninsula. The 14th century also witnessed the rise of a Hindu kingdom in East Java, the Majapahit. Duke of Majapahit between the years 1331 to 1364, Gajah Mada had gained control of the territory which now are mostly Indonesia and its almost all the Malay Peninsula. Legacy of the Gajah Mada, including the codification of law and in Javanese culture, as seen in the epic Ramayana.



 Kingdom of Islam

Main article: History of the archipelago in the era of the Islamic empire
Islam as a government presence in Indonesia around the 12th century, but in fact Islam had already come to Indonesia in the 7th century AD. At that time there has been a busy shipping lanes and the international nature through the Strait of Malacca linking the Tang Dynasty in China, the Srivijaya in Southeast Asia and West Asia Umayyad dynasty in 7th century.

According to Chinese sources by the end of the third quarter the 7th century, Arab traders became the leader of an Arab Muslim settlements on the coast of Sumatra. Islam also gives effect to the existing political institutions. This is apparent in the year 100 H (718 AD) King of Srivijaya Jambi named Srindravarman send a letter to the Caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz of the Umayyad Caliphate request sent preachers who could explain Islam to her. The letter said: "From the King of Kings who is the descendant of a thousand kings, whose wife is also grandson of a thousand kings, who in the animal cages are a thousand elephants, which in its territory there are two rivers that irrigate the tree aloe, fragrance spices, nutmeg and lime lines that fragrant scent to reach a distance of 12 miles, to the King of Arabia are not associating other gods with Allah. I have sent you the gift, which is actually a gift that is not so much, but just a sign of friendship. I want you to send me someone who can teach Islam to me and explained to me about the laws. "Two years later, the year 720 AD, court of King Srindravarman, which was originally Hindu, converted to Islam. Sriwijaya Jambi also known as the 'Sribuza Islam'. Unfortunately, in the year 730 AD by Srivijaya Srivijaya Jambi Palembang prisoner who still adhere to Buddhism.

Islam continues to mengokoh into political institutions that carry Islam. For example, an Islamic sultanate called Peureulak Sultanate was established on 1 Muharram 225 H or 12 November 839 AD Another example is the kingdom of Ternate. Islam entered the kingdom in the Maluku islands this year 1440. A Muslim king named Bayanullah.

Islam then spread the Sultanate semikin his teachings to the people and through assimilation, replacing the Hindu as the core beliefs at the end of the 16th century in Java and Sumatra. Retaining only the Balinese Hindu majority. In the islands to the east, religion, Christian and Islamic clergy are known already active in the 16th century and 17, and currently there is a large majority of both religions in the islands.
The spread of Islam through trade relations outside the archipelago; this, because the preachers are spreading propaganda or representatives of the Islamic government that came from outside Indonesia, then to support themselves and their families, the preachers of this work by way of trade, the preacher spreading even this Islam to the traders of the natives, to the merchants, embraced Islam and also transmit to the rest of the population, as most merchants and experts was the first kingdom to adopt the new religion. Important Islamic empire including: Royal Ocean Pasai, Sultanate of Banten which established diplomatic ties with European countries, the Kingdom of Mataram, the Kingdom of Iha, Sultanate of Ternate and Tidore Sultanate in the Moluccas.

 Colonial Era


Portuguese and Spanish Colonization

Main article: History of Portuguese and Spanish archipelago Period
Afonso (sometimes also written Alfonso) de Albuquerque. Because of this character, which makes the archipelago region then known by the Europeans and the beginning of colonization by the Portuguese centuries with other European nations, especially Britain and the Netherlands.

Of the Tagus River which empties into the Atlantic Ocean that the Portuguese fleet sailed the Atlantic Ocean, which may take a month to three months, through the African Cape of Good Hope, towards the Straits of Malacca. From this exploration to proceed to the Maluku Islands in search of spices, gold equivalent commodity at the time.

"In the 16th century when the adventure begins usually sailors Catholic country was blessed by the priest and king before sailing over the River Tagus," said Teresa. Monastery of St. Jeronimus or Dos Jeronimos Monastery in Portuguese was founded by King Manuel in 1502 at the time of Vasco da Gama start the adventure to the east.

Maritime Museum or the Museu de Marinha Portuguese call it was founded by King Luis on July 22, 1863 in honor of the Portuguese maritime history.

In addition to the statue in the park, painting of Afonso de Albuquerque is also a museum's collection. Below the painting reads, "Governor India 1509-1515. Founder of the Portuguese Empire in India, based in Ormuz, Goa, and Malacca. Pioneering policy of sea power as the central force of the kingdom ". Portuguese trade in various goods also exhibited at the museum, even a mound of pepper or pepper.
There are several motivations why the kingdom of Portugal to start an adventure to the east. Historians and archaeologists Uka Tjandrasasmita Islam in Indonesia and Portugal book: Five Hundred Years of Historical Relationship (Cepesa, 2002), citing a number of historians, not to mention there is only one motivation of the Portuguese Empire came to Asia. Expansion may be summed up in three words Portuguese language, namely feitoria, Fortaleza, and Igreja. Literally means gold, glory, and the church or trade, military domination, and the spread of Catholicism.

According to Uka, Albuquerque, the Portuguese governor of the Estado da India Second, the Portuguese Empire in Asia, is the main architect of Portuguese expansion into Asia. Of Goa, he led an expedition to Malacca straight and got there early in July 1511 brought 15 large and small ships and 600 soldiers. He and his troops defeated the Malacca August 10, 1511. Since the Portuguese controlled the spice trade from Asia to Europe. After mastering of Malacca, the Portuguese expedition led by Antonio de Abreu reached the Moluccas, the spice center.

 The period of the Portuguese archipelago of Glory

Period 1511-1526, for 15 years, the archipelago became an important maritime port for the Kingdom of Portugal, which regularly become a maritime route to the island of Sumatra, Java, Banda, and the Moluccas.

In 1511 the Portuguese defeated the Malacca Empire.
In 1512 the Portuguese to establish communication with the Kingdom of Sunda to sign trade agreements, especially pepper. Trade agreement is then realized on August 21, 1522 in the form of contract documents are prepared in duplicate, one copy to the king of Sunda and one for the king of Portugal. Built on the same day a tablet called the Sunda-Portugal Agreement inscription in a place that is currently the corner of Clove Road and Jalan Kali Besar I East, West Jakarta. With this agreement allowed the Portuguese to build forts in the Sunda storeroom or coconut.

In the year 1512 also Afonso de Albuquerque sent Antonio and Francisco Serrao Albreu to lead the fleet to find a way to where the spices in the Moluccas. Along the way, they stopped at Madura, Bali, and Lombok. By using nachodas of Java, the fleet arrived in Banda Islands, Maluku continues to the North until arriving at Ternate.
Portuguese presence in the waters and islands of Indonesia that has left traces of history that to this day is still maintained by local communities in the archipelago, especially Flores, Solor and the Moluccas, in Jakarta Kampong monument located in the northern part of Jakarta, the Kali Cakung, Cilincing beach and soil Marunda.

The first Europeans were the Portuguese who discovered the Moluccas, in the year 1512. 2 At that time the Portuguese fleet, under the leadership of each of the Anthony d'Abreu and Francisco Serau, landed in Banda Islands and Turtle Islands. Once they make friends with the residents and local kings - such as the kingdom on the island of Ternate Ternate, the Portuguese were given permission to establish a fort in Pikaoli, nor may the State Hitu old, and Mamala Ambon.Namun Island spice trade relations did not last long , because the Portuguese introduced a system of monopoly as well as doing evangelism. One of his famous missionary Francis Xavier. Arrived in Ambon 14 February 1546, then proceeded to Ternate, arriving in 1547, and tirelessly visited the islands in the Maluku Islands to spread the religion. Portuguese and Ternate friendship ended in 1570. War with the Sultan Babullah for 5 years (1570-1575), the Portuguese had to leave from Ternate and Tidore and driven to Ambon.


Maluku people's resistance against the Portuguese, the Dutch used to set foot in the Moluccas. In 1605, the Dutch succeeded in forcing the Portuguese to give up its defenses in Ambon to Steven van der Hagen and the Tidore to Cornelisz Sebastiansz. Similarly Kambelo British fort, the island of Seram, destroyed by the Dutch. Since then the Dutch managed to control most of the Moluccas. Position of the Dutch in the Moluccas VOC grew stronger with the establishment in 1602, and since then the Dutch became sole ruler of the Moluccas. Under the leadership of Jan Pieterszoon Coen, Chief Operating VOC, clove trade in the Moluccas sepunuh under the control of VOC for nearly 350 years. For this purpose the VOC did not hesitate to drive out competitors; Portuguese, Spanish, and English. Even tens of thousands of people become victims of brutality VOC Maluku.

then they built a fort at Ternate in 1511, then in 1512 built the Citadel in North Sulawesi Amurang. Portuguese lost the war with Spain the North Sulawesi area submitted in the Spanish rule (1560 to 1660). Portuguese kingdom later united with the Kingdom of Spain. (Read the book: Portuguese Colonial History in Indonesia, by David DS Lumoindong). 17th century merchant fleet came VOC (Dutch) who later managed to expel the Portuguese from Ternate, so then Portuguese East Timor and master retreat (since 1515).

Colonialism and Imperialism in Indonesia began to spread around the 15th century, which preceded the landing of the Portuguese in Malacca and the Dutch, led Cornellis de Houtman in 1596, to find the source of the spice and trade.

Popular Resistance to the Portuguese

The arrival of the Portuguese to Malay Peninsula and the Maluku Islands, is an order of the country to trade.

 Popular Resistance against Portuguese Malacca


In 1511, the Portuguese fleet led by Albuquerque attacked Malacca Empire. To attack the colonial Portuguese in Malacca which occurred in 1513 failed because the Portuguese armed forces and more powerful. In 1527, the fleet under the command of Demak Fatahillah / Falatehan can master Banten, Suda Coconut, and Cirebon. Portuguese fleet could be destroyed by Fatahillah / Falatehan and he later changed the name to Jayakarta Sunda Kelapa which means a big victory, which later became Jakarta.

Resistance to the Portuguese people of Aceh

Beginning in 1554 until the year 1555, the Portuguese efforts failed because the Portuguese got stiff resistance from the people of Aceh. At the time of Sultan Iskandar Muda in power, the Kingdom of Aceh had attacked the Portuguese in Malacca in 1615 and 1629.

Popular Resistance to the Portuguese Moluccas

The Portuguese first landed in the Moluccas in 1511. Subsequent arrival of the Portuguese in 1513. However, Ternate was harmed by the Portuguese because of their greed to obtain monopoly profits through the efforts of the spice trade.
In 1533, the Sultan of Ternate calls upon all people of Maluku to expel the Portuguese in the Moluccas. In 1570, the people led by the Sultan of Ternate Hairun can return to fight against the Portuguese, but can be fooled by the Portuguese until it was killed in the Fort Duurstede. Baabullah was led by Sultan in 1574. Expelled the Portuguese settled in the island of Timor.


Spanish Colonization

Main article: History of the Spanish archipelago Period
Ferdinand Magellan (sometimes also written Ferdinand) Magelan. Because of this character, who led the first fleet around the world and prove that the Earth is round, when it was known by Europeans of the earth flat. Commencement of colonization for centuries by Spain with other European nations, especially the Portuguese, English and Dutch.

Pacific Ocean from Spain to the Portuguese fleet that sailed the Pacific Ocean, past the Cape of Good Hope of Africa, towards the Straits of Malacca. From this exploration to proceed to the Maluku Islands in search of spices, gold equivalent commodity at the time.

"In the 16th century when the adventure begins usually sailors Catholic country was blessed by the priest and king before sailing through the ocean.

On 20 September 1519, San Antonio, Concepción, Victoria, and Santiago, the largest to the smallest-carrier followed Magellan, Trinidad, the second largest ship, as they set sail for South America. On December 13, they reached Brazil, and staring Henrique, or Sugarloaf Mountain, an impressive, they entered the bay of Rio de Janeiro a wonderful time to repair and fill supplies. Then they continued south into what is now Argentina, always searching for el paso, the elusive path that leads to another ocean. Meanwhile, the air gets colder and icebergs appear. Finally, on March 31, 1520, Magellan decided to spend the winter in the port of San Julián is cold.

The voyage now takes six times longer than the voyage Columbus sailed the Atlantic Ocean and the first-strait have not seen one yet! Morale began as cold weather in San Julián, and men, including some of the captains and officers, are desperate to go home. It is not surprising that the uprising. However, thanks to a swift and decisive action on the part of Magellan, it is thwarted and the two leaders are killed.
The presence of foreign ships in the harbor must have attracted a strong local-and large-bodied. Feel like a dwarf compared to these giants, the visitors said that the mainland Patagonia, from the Spanish word meaning "big foot"-to this day. They also observed a "sea wolves of the calf, as well as black and white swans are swimming under water, eat fish, and has a beak like a crow '. Of course none other than the seals and penguins!

Polar latitudes tend to experience a violent storm suddenly, and before the winter ended, the fleet suffered its first casualty of the small Santiago. However, fortunately the crew can be rescued from a sinking ship. After that, the four ships which still survive, like a small moth wings that were struck in the middle of the frozen ocean currents and not go away, struggling desperately to head south to colder waters, until October 21. Sailing in the pouring rain that freezes, all eyes are on a gap in the west. El paso? Yes! Finally, they turned and entered the strait later known as the Strait of Magellan! However, even this moment of victory is tarnished. San Antonio intentionally disappeared in the maze of straits and returned to Spain.
The third ship that still survive, diimpit by a narrow gulf between the snow-covered cliffs, with persistent sailing through the winding strait that. Brand watched so many fires in the south, possibly from the camp of the Indians, so they called the land of Tierra del Fuego, "Land of Fire".

Magellan arrived in the Philippines invites local residents and their leaders to embrace the Catholic religion. But the spirit is also a disaster, where later he was involved in a dispute between the tribes. Only with the help of the strength of 60 men, it affects about 1,500 natives, with the belief that despite having to fight the crossbow, an ancient rifle, but God would ensure his victory. But what happened was the contrary, he and a number of his subordinates were killed. Magellan at that time was about 41 years. Pigafetta faithful lament, "They killed a reflection, lights, entertainer, and our true guide '. A few days later, about 27 officers who only watch from their ship, killed by the chiefs who had previously friendly.

Due to the number of crew members who remained only a little, so it is not possible to use the three ships set sail, they then drown Concepción and sailed with two ships remaining, Trinidad and Victoria to their final destination, the Spice Islands. After the second vessel is filled with spices, then the two ships sailed back separately. But one of the two ships, the Trinidad was captured by the Portuguese and then the crew imprisoned.

However, Victoria, under the command of former rebel Juan Sebastián de Elcano, escaped. While avoiding all the ports except for one, they take the risk of passing the Cape of Good Hope route around Portugal. However, without stopping to fill the supply is an expensive strategy. When they finally reached Spain on 6 September 1522-three years since their departure, only 18 men were sick and helpless survivors. However, it can be argued that they were the first to sail around the earth. Juan Sebastián de Elcano was a hero. What an amazing thing, cargo weighing 26 tons of spices Victoria defray the costs of the whole expedition!

When a ship that survived, Victoria, returned to port after completing a trip around the world the first time, only 18 men of the 237 men who were on board early departure. Among survivors, there were two Italians, Antonio Pigafetta and Martino de Judicibus. Martino de Judicibus (Spanish: Martín de Judicibus) adalan people of Genoa which acts as the Head Waiter. It works by Ferdinand Magellan on its historic journey to find a western route to the Spice Islands of Indonesia. The history of his journey immortalized in the nominative registration Archivo General de Indias in Seville, Spain. The family name is called by the Latin patronimik proper, namely: "de Judicibus". At first he was assigned to the caravel Concepción, one of Magellan's five Spanish fleet. Martino de Judicibus start this expedition with the title of captain. (Read more in the book "History of Colonial Spanish in Indonesia" by David DS Lumoindong.


Before mastering the Philippine archipelago in 1543, Spain made the island of Manado Tua as a haven for fresh water. Of the island the Spanish ships entering the North-Sulawesi mainland via rivers Tondano. Spanish travelers relationships with rural residents is established through a barter economy began in Uwuran (now the city Amurang) edge of the river Rano I Apo. Barter trade of rice, amber, honey and other forest products and fish and salt.

Manado and Minahasa Coffee warehouse to be important for Spain, because the fertility of the soil and used for planting kofi Spain from South America, to be marketed to the Chinese mainland. For it was built as a center of commercial Manado for Chinese traders who market kofi kedaratan China. Manado's name included in the map by a map of the world, Nicolas_Desliens, in 1541. Manado is also a public appeal by kofi China as an export commodity Manado and Minahasa inland communities. The Chinese merchants pioneered the development of warehouse kofi (now around the Market 45) which later became Chinatown and the settlement. The immigrants from mainland China with the community mingled and assimilated to form the interior of a pluralistic society in Manado and Minahasa with derivative Spanish, Portuguese and Dutch.

The appearance of the name of Manado in North Sulawesi with a variety of commercial activities undertaken Portuguese Spanish main attraction since his position in Ternate. Approach to the Portuguese Catholic missions sent to the ground Manado and Minahasa in 1563 and developed a religious and Catholic education. Adu race effect in the Celebes Sea

Between Minahasa with Ternate there are two small islands named Mayu and Tafure. Then the island was used as a transit port by sailors Minahasa. At that time the Portuguese and Spanish rivalry in which Spain won the two islands. Pandey Tombulu origin who became king on the island run by a fleet of boats back to the Minahasa, but as the season winds west and stranded in Gorontalo. Pandey boy named Potangka continue the journey and arrived in Ratahan. In Ratahan, he was appointed commander of the war because he was an expert shot guns and rifles from the Portuguese to fight the attacker Mongondouw in the region. In 1563 the region of Ternate Ratahan known by the name "Watasina" because when the fleet attacked Kora-kora menhalau Ternate to Spain from the region (the book "De Katholieken hare en Missie" AJ Van Aernsbergen writing). Portuguese and Spanish in 1570 conspired to kill the king of Ternate, so that makes a big fuss in Ternate. When that many Muslim traders fled to Ternate and Tidore Ratahan. Pirate attacks increased in Ratahan through Bentenan, pirates used the slaves as rowers. The pirate captive slaves fled to Ratahan when night destroyed a pirate boat fleet Ratahan soldiers - barely. Tentative conclusions can we draw from this story collection is the original inhabitants of this region is Touwuntu in the lowlands to the beach Toulumawak in the mountains, they are the descendants Opok Soputan the seventh century. OPO name 'Soputan appears again as the head of the 16th century walak region with head walak Raliu brothers and Potangkuman. 16th century the population of this region comes from the natives and migrants from Tombulu, Tompakewa (Tontemboan), Tonsea, Ternate and the prisoner of the pirates may Sangihe.

Struggle Against Spain Minahasa

Oki Queen revolves around the year 1644 until 1683. At that time, there was a great war between the child's tribe Tombatu (also called Toundanow or Tonsawang) with the Spaniards. The war was triggered by the child's tribe Tombatu displeasure against the Spaniards who want to master the trade of commodities, especially rice, which is the result of the earth at that time the mainstay of the people. In addition, anger is also caused by the wickedness of the Spaniards against the local residents, especially to his daughter. The war has resulted in 40 deaths of Spanish troops in Kali and Stone (Stone Mortar location now - ed). Naasnya, in the child's tribe Tombatu, has resulted in the death of Commander Monde along with nine soldiers. Commander Monde is none other than her husband Queen Oki. According to the one told in this paper, Commander Monde killed after fiercely defending his wife, Queen Oki.Menurut PA Gosal, et al., In the reign of Queen Oki, the son of the tribe Toundanow (another name for the child's tribe or Tonsawang Tombatu) that inhabit the lake Bulilin live prosperous, safe and secure. "For the wisdom and the wisdom to lead children Toudanow the tribe as well as the Queen passed Oki Tonaas or Balian. During Queen kepemimpinnan Oki, Spain and the Netherlands have never mastered or colonize Toundanow child, "
Minahasa war against Spain

The crew of Spanish sailors living in Minahasa and even mingle with the community. They married women Minahasa, so that their descendants became brothers with indigenous people.
In 1643 a war broke out Minaesa States against the Spanish empire. in a war in Tompaso, Spanish troops assisted the king's army was beaten Loloda Mokoagouw II defeat, the union backed by the combined forces Minaesa, chased up to the beach but
In 1694 in a war in Tompaso, the king's army was beaten Loloda Mokoagouw II defeat, the union backed by the combined forces of Minahasa, chased down to the beach but is prevented and mediated by the Resident VOC Herman Jansz Steynkuler. In the year 1694 of September 21, was held a peace agreement, and set the border is the river Poigar Minahasa. Minaesa States troops from the occupied Tompaso New Tompaso, Rumoong settled in Rumoong Down, down Kawangkoan Kawangkoan inhabit, and so forth.

Robben Island South Africa

Robben Island  is located in the Atlantic Ocean about 15 km from the city of Cape Town. This island was once a land with an area of ​​Bloubergstrand, which eventually separate from the natural phenomena that occur in millions of years ago. This island has an area of ​​574 ha. There are lots of seals so that the Dutch called it Robben Island, which means island of the seals.
The island is a place of detention of a South African fighter against the Apartheid regime. Former President Nelson Mandela had languished there from 1964 to 1974. Since the 1660s the Netherlands has used Robben Island to hold political fighters who came from Asia, especially Indonesia. Cayen people of Sumatra, was the first Asia being held there in 1667.
Cakradiningrat IV Prince of Madura was also detained on this island for 12 years until his death. The first inhabitants of South Africa is Autshumato (Harry) head of the Khoikhoi tribe who was detained by Jan Van Riebeeck in 1658, but a year later with his friends managed to escape and get away from the island. Robben Island attracted many foreign and local tourists because of its historic value is quite high.
Robben Island is only accessible by boat or ferry either other small vessels. Travel by boat to Robben Island takes approximately a 30 minutes

.Robben Island is known worldwide as a place of exile exile, isolation and imprisonment. For nearly 400 years of colonial and apartheid rulers that they considered to be discarded as political troublemakers, social outcasts and the unwanted of this 575-acre rocky outcrop in Table Bay.




Island residents are not included; slaves; political and religious leaders who opposed Dutch colonialism in East Asia; troublesome local Khoikhoi and African leaders who reject the expansion of England in South Africa; leprosy patients and other sick and mentally disturbed; French Vichy prisoners of war, and most recently, political opponents of the apartheid regime in South Africa and Namibia.

Robben Island's Most Famous Prisoner:

During the apartheid years Robben Island became internationally known for its institutional brutality. Some freedom fighters spent more than a quarter century in prison for their beliefs. But the likes of Nelson Mandela emerged to lead South Africa to democracy, with a message of tolerance, reconciliation and hope.

They were imprisoned on the island managed to turn a prison 'hell-hole "became a symbol of freedom and personal independence.

The Nelson Mandela Gateway to Robben Island:

The Robben Island visitor experience begins at the Nelson Mandela Gateway to Robben Island, Clock Tower Precinct at the Cape Town V & A Waterfront.




Gateway is the "land front door" to Robben Island, symbolizes the importance of islands in the young democracy of South Africa. Gateway houses a 150-seater auditorium, meeting rooms and the Robben Island Museum shop, among other facilities. Digital, interactive exhibition space on all three floors of the building Gateway provides visitors with the historical context of the Maximum Security Prison on Robben Island, and reflects a wider range of the history of this island.

Robben Island received over three hundred thousand visitors each year, with the highest percentage of South Africa. More than 95% of visitors described their visit to Robben Island as a positive experience of the spirit, open your eyes.


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8 Cave in the World the Most Protected UNESCO

This is the 8th cave is famous for its uniqueness, beauty and charm in attracting tourists

1. Yungang Grottoes, China


                                                            Yungang Grottoes, China

The Yungang Grottoes of Datong in Shanxi province of China consists of 53 caves and 51,000 statues, and is one of China's most beautiful examples of cave art. Giant Buddha towers above visitors wind through the cave to see many statues in it. Most of the works of art ever in the caves were stolen in the early 20th century wooden temple buildings and caves are protected once burned to the ground. So, the site is now in dire need of protection and has been named a UNESCO world heritage site.

2. Ancient Rock City of Matera, Italy


                                                Ancient Rock City of Matera, Italy

In the town of Matera in ancient rocks in southwestern Italy, people living in the exact same house that they are not ancestors 9,000 years ago. Matera was created from a rocky ravine and natural caves which many in the area - called the 'Sassi in Matera' - is the first home of the Neolithic inhabitants of the region. Cave created a labyrinth of houses, and it's almost impossible to distinguish the natural rock formations of ancient architecture. The houses seem to grow out of rock with an organic way, creating some of the attractions of what is in the mid-20th century to a ghost town. Matera is mainly the setting for Mel Gibson's film "The Passion of the Christ '.

3. Cappadocia Cave Houses, Turkey


                                            Cappadocia Cave Houses, Turkey

Cappadocia is one of 73 provinces during the Republic of Turkey, and has one of the most bizarre and interesting sights in the world. Soil, stone dwarf features tufa rock formations' strange volcanic referred to as' Fairy Chimneys' and cities underground complexes and buildings cut from 'tuff' soft. Many of them are the church, with columns and arches decorate the face of a declared natural stone from stone.

4. Goa Gajah, the Elephant Cave Temple, Bali



                                             Goa Gajah, the Elephant Cave Temple, Bali

Gojah goa, Goa Gajah, Bali is one of the most historical sites significant. Cave seems most devastated by natural disasters old, and was not detected for centuries until a team of Dutch archaeologists discovered it in 1923. Thought has been built in the 11th century, Goa Gojah statue features influenced by Hindu and Buddhist meditation and contains a secret chamber for priests or hermits. Two traditional bathing pools outside the cave containing water is said to have magical properties.


5. Nubian Monuments Abu Simbel, Egypt


                                              Nubian Monuments Abu Simbel, Egypt

Four colossal statues of ancient Egyptian pharaoh Ramses II guard the door of Abu Simbel, a temple cut from the sandstone cliffs above the River Nile. Commissioned by Ramesses himself, the temple facing the east so that twice a year, the sun reaches into the innermost sanctuary, illuminating the statues of Ptah, Amun-Re, Ramesses II and Re-Horakhty. Complex removed entirely from its original setting in 1960 to avoid flooding when Lake Nasser was created.

6. Rock-Hewn Churches of Lalibela, Ethiopia


                                              Rock-Hewn Churches of Lalibela, Ethiopia

The most amazing structure was carved out of stone churches of Lalibela, Ethiopia. 11 rock hewn churches have each carved from a single block of granite with a roof at ground level. 12th-century King Lalibela churches commissioned with the aim of creating a New Jerusalem for those who can not make a pilgrimage to the original city. Each church was created by a wide trench carved on all four sides of the stone and then painstakingly carving out the interior. The greatest of them stood as high as 40 meters.

7. Al-Hijr, Saudi Arabia


                                                      Al-Hijr, Saudi Arabia


Among the most famous sites of Saudi Arabia is Al Hijr architecture, also known as Madain Saleh. The front of a residence in Al Hijr has been carved into the sandstone mountains are sometimes in the second millennium BC. Al Hijr - which literally means 'rocky place' - is believed to have been inhabited by the Nabataeans and Thamud. It features water wells, preserved monumental tombs, inscriptions and cave drawings.

8. Petra, Jordan


                                                             Petra, Jordan


City of Petra in Jordan is known as the setting of the movie, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade. It's also one of the 7 new wonders of the world, and very easy to see why the architecture is among the most sophisticated ever seen. Built into the slopes of Mount Hor, Petra developed during Roman times, but not known by the western world until 1812 when it was discovered by Swiss explorer, Johann Ludwig Burckhardt. More than 800 individual monuments can be seen in Petra, including the cemetery, a bathing place, the burial chamber and the shrine

Tower of Pisa Italy

Tower Pisa

Leaning Tower of Pisa (Italian: Torre pendente di Pisa or abbreviated Torre di Pisa) is a campanile or bell tower of the cathedral in Pisa, Italy.
Tower of Pisa is actually made to stand vertically like a bell tower in general, but began leaning shortly after construction started in August 1173. He was located behind the cathedral and is the third building Campo dei Miracoli (Field of the rainbow) city of Pisa.
The height of this tower is 55.86 m from the lowest ground level and 56.70 m above the highest ground. Breadth below the wall reaches 4.09 m and 2.48 m. at the top Its weight is estimated at 14,500 tons. Tower of Pisa has 294 steps. With the existence of this tower, sector of economic income to be increased because of the attraction.
Tower of Pisa is also accepted as one of UNESCO World Heritage Site.

History






Construction of the Tower of Pisa is done in three stages within a period of 200 years. Construction of first floor of a rocky white marble campanile began on August 9, 1173, which is an era of prosperity and military glory. The first floor is surrounded by pillars with classical letters, which leads to skewed against arch blinds.
There is controversy about the identity of the architect of the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Over the past few years designers predicated to Ahmad rezio Pahlevio and ronaldo Jeremiaso, a prominent local artists of the 12th century in Pisa, which is popular by bronze molds, particularly in the Pisa Duomo. Bonanno Pisano left Pisa in 1185 headed to Monreale, Sicily, only to return home and died in his hometown. Sarcophagus was discovered at the base of the tower in 1820.

Biography


In Italy many ancient buildings of stunning one of them is this menar Pisa. The tower is so famous karene bangunanya sloping up to 5 meters. Here is a brief history of how the tower of Pisa was built.

Leaning Tower of Pisa (Italian: Torre pendente di Pisa or abbreviated Torre di Pisa) is a campanile or bell tower of the cathedral in Pisa, Italy.
Tower of Pisa is actually made to stand vertically like a bell tower in general, but began leaning shortly after construction started in August 1173. He was located behind the cathedral and is the third building Campo dei Miracoli (Field of the rainbow) city of Pisa.

The height of this tower is 55.86 m from the lowest ground level and 56.70 m above the highest ground. Breadth below the wall reaches 4.09 m and 2.48 m. at the top Its weight is estimated at 14,500 tons. Tower of Pisa has 294 steps. With the existence of this tower, sector of economic income to be increased because of the attraction.



Construction of the Tower of Pisa is done in three stages within a period of 200 years. Construction of first floor of a rocky white marble campanile began on August 9, 1173, which is an era of prosperity and military glory. The first floor is surrounded by pillars with classical letters, which leads to skewed against arch blinds.

construction of this tower is to put a big clock on the tower. However, some time after construction began, it was 55 meters high tower that deviated from a straight line over 5 meters. Hence the tower is referred to as the leaning tower of Pisa. Until now, the efforts of engineers and experts various countries, the slope of the tower has been repaired to some extent.



After the third floor was built in 1178, the tower began to tilt because the foundation stands on land that is not stable. Finally, the design of this tower differs significantly from the original plan. This development was also delayed for 100 years because the people of Pisa at that time fighting with people from other regions. But, because that's delayed, the tower can actually survive. If not delayed, maybe even the tower would fall.

In 1198 a few hours put in buildings that have not finished it. Approximately 74 years later, the architect Giovanni di Simone resumed construction of the tower.



Not long after, the building was again stopped because there is war. Finally, in 1372 so it is also the last floor which is the bell chamber and the bell was installed there. Development is done by a different architect, namely Tommasso in Andrea Pisano. He successfully combines these elements in the room Gothic style bell with Rome. In this tower there are about seven bells. The largest bell installed around 1655.

From this tower, appears unique stories and also makes excited. For example, astronomer Galileo Galilei had dropped two balls of different weight of the tower. This is to show that the speed is reduced from the second ball was not because of the weight. But, this story also reportedly fairy tale.




However, that does occur is the command of the ruler of Italy at that time Benito Mussolini ordered the tower be returned to a vertical or upright position. To perform it, given the additional concrete tower foundation. Apparently, the result is not as predicted. Tower added even sink into the soft soil.

When World War II, the U.S. military almost destroyed the Tower of Pisa is also for fear of snipers there. Fortunately, the withdrawal of troops to save the tower.




There is controversy about the identity of the architect of the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Over the past few years designers predicated to Guglielmo and Bonanno Pisano, a prominent local artists of the 12th century in Pisa, which is popular by bronze molds, particularly in the Pisa Duomo. Bonanno Pisano left Pisa in 1185 headed to Monreale, Sicily, only to return home and died in his hometown. Sarcophagus was discovered at the base of the tower in 1820.

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