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Tourism Object nature of Lake Toba

Tourism Object nature of Lake Toba

Lake Toba is a volcanic lake with a length of 100 kilometers and 30 kilometers wide, located in the province of North Sumatra, Indonesia. This lake is the largest lake in Indonesia and Southeast Asia. In the middle of this lake there is a volcanic island called Samosir Island.

Lake Toba has long been an important tourist destination in North Sumatra, Bukit Lawang, Berastagi and Nias, attract domestic and foreign tourists.

In addition to enjoying the natural beauty and hospitality of the lake and its inhabitants, while in Samosir you can see attractions such as seeing the grave stone, Simando, Ambarita (stone table where traditional Batak penalties) or swimming in natural hot springs.

Tourism Object nature of Lake TobaLake Toba tourist information
  • Lake Toba is located in Indonesia
  • Location: North Sumatra
  • Country: Indonesia
  • Coordinates: 3.58 ° N 98.67 ° E
  • Attraction type: Nature tourism, lake

History

It is estimated that Lake Toba explosion occurred at about 73000-75000 years ago and is the eruption (super volcano) the most recent. Bill Rose and Craig Chesner from Michigan Technological University estimate sea.

This incident caused mass death and the extinction of some species also followed. According to some DNA evidence, this eruption also reduced the number of people to about 60% of the total human population of the earth at that time, which is about 60 million people. The eruption also caused the ice age, although experts still debate it. After the eruption, the caldera formed which is then filled with water and became what is now known as Lake Toba. Pressure up by magma that has not come out cause the appearance of the island.

International multidisciplinary research team, led by Dr. Michael Petraglia, revealed in a press conference in Oxford, the United States has found a new archaeological site that is quite spectacular by geologists in the southern and northern India. On the site it was revealed how people survive, before and after volcanic eruptions (supervolcano) Toba 74,000 years ago, and evidence of life under the ashes of Mount Toba. Though the source of the eruption is 3,000 miles, from the distribution of ashes.

Tourism Object nature of Lake Toba
For seven years, experts from the University oxford project researching the ecosystem in India, to look for evidence of life and equipment life they left behind in the barren desert. Area with thousands of hectares of this was only the savanna (grasslands). While the scattered bones of animals. The team concluded, large areas covered with dust from this turns ancient volcanic eruptions.


The spread of volcanic dust was very spacious, found almost all over the world. Derived from an ancient supervolcano eruption, namely Mount Toba. Alleged leads to Mount Toba, as evidence of molecular forms of the same volcanic dust in the 2100 period. Since caldera crater that is now a lake Toba in Indonesia, 3,000 miles, from the source of the eruption. In fact, surprisingly enough, it turns out spread of dust to be recorded up to the North Pole. This is reminiscent of the experts, how powerful the Toba super volcano eruption at that time.
Tourism Object nature of Lake Toba.

Kelud erupts February 13, 2014

Once the government establishes the status Kelud be Caution , Kelud located precisely at the border of East Java Kediri , Blitar and Malang Regency eventually erupt and release bursts of smoke and volcanic material up to a height of 3000 meters to be exact on Thursday, February 13, 2014 evening at around 22:50 pm .

In addition to the ' wooden horse ' , the historical record Kelud eruptions also occur in 13-15 century AD Based on a paper written by Akhmad Zaennudin and Darwin Siregar (IAGI 2008) , the eruption that occurred at that time the explosive eruptions large enough to precipitate the phreatic material , pyroclastic flows and pyroclastic fallout fairly thick .

Kelud eruption was very powerful , thousands of people thronged the streets on the slopes Kelud to the evacuation site . They are from several villages in the district Ngancar . For now, the citizens of District Headquarters Ngancar placed in Tawang in District Wates , Kediri . Evakuasipun process is still ongoing to this day .

Let us pray for our brothers a

Mountain Kelud Tourism

Kelud ( often be Kelut which means " broom " in Javanese ; Dutch called Klut , Cloot , Kloet , or Kloete ) is a volcano in East Java , Indonesia , which is still active . The mountain is located on the border between Kediri , Blitar and Malang district , approximately 27 km east of Kediri center .

morphology

This volcano, including the type of explosive eruption stratovulkan characteristics . Like many other volcanoes in Java , Kelud formed by the subduction of the Indo - Australian continental plate against the Eurasian plate . Since the year 1300 AD , it was recorded active mountain range erupted at relatively short intervals ( 9-25 years ) , making it the volcanoes are harmful to humans .
The specificity of this volcano is the crater lake ( until late 2007 ) which makes very liquid lava eruptions and endanger the surrounding population . As a result of the activities that gave rise to the 2007 lava dome , crater lake almost gone and left a sort of puddle water .

Peak - peak current is the remainder of the eruption of the past that brought down the top of the ancient . Wall on the southwest side open so complex crater collapse toward the opening . Kelud is the highest peak , positioned slightly to the northeast of the crater . The tops of the other is on the west side Gajahmungkur Peak and Peak chippy on the south side .

Note Kelud activity


Kelud 1901


Kelud 1919
Since the 15th century , Kelud has claimed more than 15,000 lives. The explosion was in 1586 claiming more than 10,000 lives. A system to divert the lava flow has been made ​​extensively in 1926 and still functioning until now after the eruption in 1919 claimed thousands of lives due to cold lava flood swept settlements population .
In the 20th century , recorded Kelud erupted in 1901 , 1919 ( May 1 ) , 1951 , 1966 , and 1990 . This pattern brings experts volcano on 15-year cycle for this eruption . Entering the 21st century , the mountain erupted in 2007 , 2010, and 2014 . This change in frequency is due to the formation of a lava plug in the mouth of the crater .

eruption in 1919

This eruption is among the most deadly since claimed 5,160 lives, damage to 15,000 hectares of productive land due to lava flow reach 38 km , although in time the Rhinos have built retaining lava dam in 1905  . Besides Hugo Cool in 1907 also assigned a dig a channel through the embankment or the western part of the crater wall . The effort was successfully issued 4.3 million cubic meters of water

Since the eruption of the duct system is then constructed crater lake drainage tunnel , and was completed in 1926 . Overall built seven tunnels . In the period after independence the new tunnel was built after the eruption of 1966 , 45 meters below the old tunnel . The tunnel is completed in 1967 it was named the Ampera Tunnel . This channel serves to maintain the volume of the crater lake to keep 2.5 million cubic meters  .

The eruption in 1990 

The eruption in 1990 lasted for 45 days , which is February 10, 1990 until March 13, 1990 . In this eruption , spewing Kelud 57.3 million cubic meters of volcanic material . Cold lava spread to 24 kilometers from the crater lake through 11 rivers that disgorge at the mountain .
This eruption could shut down the tunnel Ampera with volcanic material . The new normalization process thaun completed in 1994.

The eruption of 2007 

Volcanic activity is increased in late September 2007 and continued until November of the same year , marked by increasing water temperature of the crater lake , an increase in seismic tremor , as well as discoloration of the crater lake of murky greenish white . Status " alert " ( highest ) issued by the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation since October 16, 2007 which implicates the population within a radius of 10 km from the mountain ( approximately 135,000 people) living on the slopes of the volcano to evacuate . However, the eruption did not occur .


Having had somewhat subsided , Kelud activity again increased since October 30, 2007 with a rapid increase in water temperature of the crater lake and shallow volcanic seismicity . On November 3, 2007 around 16:00 lake water temperature exceeds 74 degrees Celsius , well above the normal symptoms of the eruption of 40 degrees Celsius , causing the temperature gauge was broken . Vibration amplitude seismic tremor with large ( more than 35mm ) lead inspection officials had to evacuate , but again no eruption .

Due to the high activity of these symptoms occur uniquely in the history of the emergence of Kelud with thick white smoke from the crater lake of lava dome followed by the middle of the crater lake since November 5, 2007 and continues to " grow " up to size 100 m wide . Experts consider this lava dome so that clogging of magma eruption is not imminent . Energy to be used to encourage the eruption of lava dome eruptions rest of 1990.

Since the incident energy release activity on the wane and on November 8, 2007 Kelud status downgraded to " standby " ( level 3 ) .
Crater Lake Kelud practical " lost " due to the emergence of a large lava dome . What was left was a small pool of water murky brown in the south side of the lava dome .

The eruption in 2014

Having in mind the increase in activity since the end of 2013 , Kelud raised its status to alert on February 10, 2014 and then Watch it on February 13, 2014 at 21:15 pm  . Type of explosive eruptions such as in 1990 ( in 2007 the type effusive , in the form of magma flow ) is predicted to occur after heavy rains enough gravel perceived district residents in the area . Ngandar , Kediri , East Java , the location where the famous active volcano is located , even up to the town of Pare , Kediri . The area used as a point of refuge Wates residents living within a radius of up to 10 kilometers from the lava dome according to the recommendations of the Center for Volcanology , Mitigation , and Geological Hazard ( PVMBG ) . Also occasionally volcanic activity rumbling sounds to the District . Jombang . The impact of any form of volcanic ash on February 14, 2014 early morning residents reportedly have reached Kab . Roxburgh.

The eruption in 2014

The eruption in 2014 was detected by PVMBG and responded with an increase in status to Alert ( level II ) . On February 10, increased to standby status ( Level III ) , and the preparations of the disaster has begun . Regions around 5 km from the cusp of the crater has been sterilized of human activity . On February 13, at 21 dimumkan status of supreme danger , Caution ( Level IV ) , so that the radius of 10 km from the summit to be emptied of humans . Not yet had the displacement , at 22:40 there has been an explosion type eruptions ( explosive ) .

Reported the sound of explosions could be heard from the city of Yogyakarta ( 200 km ) , even Purbalingga ( approximately 300 miles ) , Central Java .

Linkages history and culture

The mountain is recorded in the period of classical texts such as Indonesia and Travel Pararaton Bujangga Manik as Mount Ka ( m ) pud and become the object of veneration . Holy Goddess figures Kili and Anglingdarma associated with this mountain .


Sights Kelud


Kelud 2012. 2007 lava dome appeared in the middle , with a peak Kelud background . On the left is part of the Peak Gajahmungkur .
Towards the summit area since 2004 Kelud road ties have improved to facilitate the tourists as well as residents . Kelud has become a tourist attraction Kediri with the main attraction is the lava dome . At the top of the viewing post Gajahmungkur built with stairs made ​​of cement . On weekend evenings , given the lava dome lighting colorful lights  . Moreover, it has also provided a climbing lane at the top cleft , thermal baths , as well as flying fox .

Kediri action build the tourist area of Blitar protests , which considers the region a peak Kelud region  . Dispute is mainly tapered region after the fall of East Java Governor Decree No. 188/113/KPTS/013/2012 stating that Kelud peak region is a region of Kediri .

Tourism cave Pindul Gunungkidul Yogyakarta

Tourism cave Pindul Gunungkidul Yogyakarta

Not many caves with underground river in the world . Indonesia is fortunate to have Pindul in Gunungkidul . Many say, charm make this cave is called sexy .

Many cite the cave Pindul as a sexy cave . In the world there are only four , one of which is Pindul . Caving walking normally , but in Pindul we have to use a float .

Tourism cave Pindul Gunungkidul Yogyakarta

Attraction which was inaugurated on October 10, 2010 The event is located in the hamlet , village Bejiharjo , District Karangmojo , Gunungkidul . To get to the location , after entering the village Bejiharjo , proceed straight white line follows the asphalt . Location Pindul secretariat located at the end of the road . Included in the tour package Gods Bejo ( Rural Tourism Bejiharjo ) .

How to enjoy the beauty of stalactites and stalagmites in Pindul to flow down the underground river . With a ride on rubber tires that washed away . This activity is commonly called cave tubing . River flow comes from springs gedong Seven , which never dry despite the dry season .

To enter the cave charged Rp 30 thousand , accompanied by a guide . This package includes a helmet , life jacket , rubber tires and rubber boots . Transportation to the site is provided flatbed transport vehicle . The path to the location rather steep because the asphalt starts to break down .

Before performing a search , the guide gives guidance how to cave tubing . The guides are from residents about the already professional .

Tourism cave Pindul Gunungkidul Yogyakarta

Tourism cave Pindul Gunungkidul Yogyakarta

Inside the cave there is a stalactite shaped like male genitalia , called the mighty stone . When held myth men can add courage . There is another form of decoration curtain wall and stone columns . There are also water pearls that when someone passes always dripping . This water is used to wash the face of women travelers . Some say this water can add beauty .

Cave combined with spiritual tourist , called eternal darkness . Being in a dark room in the middle of a cave for 20 minutes , the guide turned off all flashlights . For the safety of those around the participant .

Pindul 350 meter traced for about an hour and ends at a dam where the water is crystal clear . According to the manager , Pindul name comes from the legend . There are babies cheeks hit a rock while bathed in this cave . The Javanese call kebendhul .

Tourism cave Pindul Gunungkidul Yogyakarta

Tourism cave Pindul Gunungkidul Yogyakarta

The tourists must remain careful to surf despite being accompanied by a guide . Local media said the online site , there are two victims in Banyumoto Dam , in the Pindul . They entered without the knowledge manager Pindul official .

In the vicinity of tourist attractions Pindul there are several food stalls that provide meatballs and drinks . To unwind after a search . For those who want to stay are also available dwellings were in the houses around .

Save 10 Tourist Attractions in Europe

Save 10 Tourist Attractions in Europe

Europe is the continent 's most expensive for foreign tourists . However , there are few cities in Europe that are very affordable in terms of cost .

Site USA Today analyzed the cost of hotel stays, meals , airfare , and tourism attractions in cities affordable for working class travelers . In those cities , travelers can find cheap hotel rooms , free activities , and affordable valuables .

One of the city is Rome , Italy . The city is not only earned the most affordable big city in Italy , but also one of the most economical tourist destination in Europe .

Here are 10 city " pocket friendly " for tourists giving insufficient :

Rome
Rome is one of the most visited places in Europe . But unlike Paris or London , the city is an amazing vacation spot in terms of budget . Hotel rates per night on average U.S. $ 190 dollars or equivalent to Rp 1.78 million , cheaper than places other major tourist destinations in Italy .

Because Rome was the center of the largest international crossroads , plane tickets to the city is often much cheaper than rates to other cities in Italy . According to the website Kayak , airfares from New York to Rome in October starting at U.S. $ 688 round-trip . Compare with the New York - Venezia ( U.S. $ 740 round-trip ) , New York - Florence ( U.S. $ 934 round-trip ) , or New York - Napoli ( U.S. $ 753 round trip ) .

Prague
The millennium city is one of Europe's tourist destinations is more economical . According to TripIndex pages , still a parent with site TripAdvisor , Prague is in the 20th position of the most visited cities in the world and fifth in Europe . The average price for a one-night stay , according to TripAdvisor , around U.S. $ 248 for two people .

The city also has quite a lot of free sites that are guaranteed not to make the bag flat . Havelsk flower market , Charles Bridge , and the 10th-century castle towering over the city of Vysehrad are some interesting sights are free . Want to smell the Europe of the past ? Come to Old Town square .

Dublin
Very easy to find an affordable hotel in Dublin . Average hotel there offers a two night stay package includes accommodation and breakfast for two people with a starting price of 75 euros per person ( about U.S. $ 94 ) . The New York Times website mentions hotels were nicer offering price of U.S. $ 150 per night . In addition , Dublin tourist attraction filled with affordable , even free , including the National Museum of Ireland , National Botanic Gardens , and Museum of Modern Art Ireland .

At Ashford Castle , tourists can glimpse a peek past the rich Irish . Because it is the center of Europe , flew to Ireland fairly cheap . As an illustration , round-trip ticket from the U.S. to Dublin under U.S. $ 500 and U.S. $ 1,000 in the busy season , usually during the summer .

Warsaw
You can save money in the cities of Eastern Europe than in Western Europe . Of all the cities in Eastern Europe , Warsaw is a paradise for travelers looking for luxury accommodation at a bargain price . According to the Hotel Price Index from Hotels.com , Poland 's capital city offers the most luxurious hotels in the world for the lowest price . Taris average five-star hotel in Warsaw U.S. $ 130 per night in 2011 .

Other hotels offer lower prices , although service and the equivalent of five-star hotel rooms . For example , the price of Polonia Palace Hotel on weekends only 65 euros per night . In fact , Polonia dalah luxury hotel that was built in the early 20th century and is the only hotel in Warsaw that survived during World War II .

Lisbon
Portugal, on the whole , less expensive place to visit than its neighbor , Spain . The country's capital city , Lisbon , for example , offers a charm no less exotic than the other European countries right : Beautiful view of the sea , cosmopolitan beaches , quaint cobbled streets and Gothic cathedral . Cost of one night stay in a four star hotel on average U.S. $ 130 , according to TripAdvisor . The New York Times reported that many cultural attractions presented free on Sunday , including the Museu Nacional de Arqueologia and Torre de Belem , a historical fort .

Budapest
According to annual surveys TripAdvisor Trip Index , price comparison for accommodation and activities , Budapest is the most affordable city for tourists throughout Europe . According to TripAdvisor , the cost for a one-night stay in a four star hotel , one cocktail per person , dinner for two with a bottle of wine , and round-trip transportation to use taxis only U.S. $ 194 .

At Hotel Palazzo Zichy , popular second property of 333 hotels in Budapest at about € 59 per night charge .


Birmingham
London is the most expensive city in the world for tourists , at least for now . 2012 Olympic Games held in the British capital this makes lodging prices skyrocket . According to Trip Index survey about staying one night in London with two activities could spend more than U.S. $ 500 .

But try to shift into Birmingham , historic city center with beautiful canals and classic British pub . William Shakespeare 's hometown offers a more sensual attraction rather than London , but the price is affordable . In this city hotel rates cheaper than Liverpool , Oxford , and Manchester , with prices around U.S. $ 94 per night .

Berlin
At the Hotel Price Index , Berlin is one of the most affordable cities for luxury hotels in the world . The average price of a luxury hotel in Berlin in 2011 was U.S. $ 198 per night . Survey conducted by Hotels.com showed that the average hotel in Berlin cost 76 euros per night . Compare with New York ( 171 euro ) , London ( 134 euro ) , and Paris ( 114 euro ) .

Brussels
Such as Warsaw , Brussels is one of the best cities in Europe to seek luxury accommodation at an affordable price . Hotel in the city was ranked seventh in the Hotel Price Index from Hotels.com for a low price but luxury . And the cost to the city is also competitive price .

Vienna
Although Austria is known is expensive , priced travel package to the city is quite affordable . Generally travel agency offering tour packages to Vienna , Prague , and Budapest . Six night package for those cities ( two nights in each city ) is priced starting at U.S. $ 1,499 for travel in September or October , including plane tickets to Budapest and back from Prague and accommodation as well as breakfast .

Save 10 Tourist Attractions in Europe

Hill Montain Tilung Kalimantan

Hill Montain Tilung Kalimantan

Hill climbing Tilung, the Temple Mount Songshan Dayak Orung

Dayak community Songshan Orung believe that after death their souls will gather at Bukit Tilung. Not just anyone can enter this sacred area. Before entering this hill, one should perform the ceremony to ask safety. The offerings given to the fathers so that the climbing team free from distress.

Rajang grandfather, former Chief of the district or the chief Orung Songshan Dayak ceremony to ask for the safety of the team who will be doing the climb Mount Tilung. Fill the offering ceremony is 1 chicken, sticky rice (glutinous rice), betel leaves, rice, and burr - a drink made from fermented glutinous rice.

Bukit Tilung included in the hills in the upper ranks of the Mandai River, a river located in the heart of Borneo. On this hill we could still find a jungle of Borneo are still tight and untouched logging.

Some of the hills that surround the village of Nanga Raun, the village has ever had betang longest in West Kalimantan, is Tilung Bukit, Bukit stumps, Amaiambit Bukit, Bukit Liang Handle, Pari Hill, and Bukit Bumbun. This is part of a climbing expedition to Borneo Hello Nature Lovers Students Universitas Gadjah Mada (Mapagama) Yogyakarta, together with WWF Indonesia and Community Tourism Kapuas Hulu (Kompakh).


Dayak community Songshan Orung believe that after death their souls will gather at Bukit Tilung. Not just anyone can enter this sacred area. Before entering this hill, one should perform the ceremony to ask safety. The offerings given to the fathers so that the climbing team free from distress.




Rajang grandfather, former Chief of the district or the chief Orung Songshan Dayak ceremony to ask for the safety of the team who will be doing the climb Mount Tilung. Fill the offering ceremony is 1 chicken, sticky rice (glutinous rice), betel leaves, rice, and burr - a drink made from fermented glutinous rice.

Bukit Tilung included in the hills in the upper ranks of the Mandai River, a river located in the heart of Borneo. On this hill we could still find a jungle of Borneo are still tight and untouched logging.


Some of the hills that surround the village of Nanga Raun, the village has ever had betang longest in West Kalimantan, is Tilung Bukit, Bukit stumps, Amaiambit Bukit, Bukit Liang Handle, Pari Hill, and Bukit Bumbun. This is part of a climbing expedition to Borneo Hello Nature Lovers Students Universitas Gadjah Mada (Mapagama) Yogyakarta, together with WWF Indonesia and Community Tourism Kapuas Hulu (Kompakh). The exploration objective is surveying and mapping caves, botanical identification and survey of potential ecotourism.






Tilung hill plays 1112 meters above sea level. Although not as high as the mountains on the island of Java, but it is much more challenging ascent path as the forest is still pretty tight. Climbing the hill towards the start of a height of 50 meters above sea level. There are two paths to the foot of the hill through the woods and fields of population which takes about 3 hours walk from the village Tilung, or follow the river downstream to the Mandai River and into Raun which can be reached by boat outboard engine about 1 hour.


The first day of the ascent, Rajang grandfather, former Chief of the district or the chief Orung Songshan Dayak ceremony to ask for the safety of the team who will be doing the climb Mount Tilung. Fill the offering ceremony is 1 chicken, sticky rice (glutinous rice), betel leaves, rice, and a burr (a drink made from fermented glutinous rice). The offerings will be given to the fathers in order to be free from danger climbing team. Dayak Orung Songshan still firmly holding the custom, including safety always performed the ceremony asked each want to do something.


The journey to the foot of Mount Tilung can be done on foot or follow the river using a boat. Tilung hill located next to the river flow Raun, a river which became the name of the nearby village of Bukit Tilung the Nanga Raun. There are several cascade in the river so that boats should be guided by the river in order to pass through the rapids.



From the foot of the hill, the journey begins with a sloping path. Several times through the small rivers with a width of 3-6 meters, then connected with the road began to climb. Pathways that are increasingly coupled with the extreme rain that continued to fall making the trip to be more severe.

Not infrequently encountered fallen trees along the way. Fallen trees are sometimes large enough in diameter to tens of meters long.
Forest Hill keasriannya Tilung still awake. Waterfall encountered quite a lot and clear water. Raun Nanga community forest is still keeping them well, because they are aware that that is deforested only be devastating to their lives.
Hill Tilung Laumann large trees that have tens or even hundreds of years old, one of which is a meranti tree is very large. Meranti tree age is estimated to have nearly 1 century. The good news, this tree is not the biggest tree in the forest Tilung hill, but there's more that is much larger and its continuity is maintained.
One of the caves or overdraft in Bukit Tilung place to sleep which is usually made by the hunters. This cave called Gua Gua Market or Mapala and were on level three Tilung Hill. There are 5 levels to the top. From level 4 to level 5 path traversed perpendicularly 90 degrees so it can only be climbed by using proper climbing equipment. In front of the cave lies Bukit Tilung trees, and if lucky can see the typical bird of Borneo Hornbill Hornbill or flying from one tree to another.

Moss is one of the cave caves were found and mapped by a team of Mapagama. This cave is located at the base of the falls. With a diameter of about 20 meters, the cave is a nesting site found several causes of forest hedgehog spikes. This cave is also the habitat of the bird Lumut, the bird builds its nest of moss and soil.

Hill Montain Tilung Kalimantan