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History of Indonesia





History of the name of Indonesia

Records of past calls between Indochina and islands in Australia by various names.
Chronicles the Chinese call this area as Nan-hai ("the South Sea Islands").
Various records of ancient India Dwipantara named this archipelago ("Isles Overseas Land"), a name derived from the Sanskrit word Dwipa (island) and the (outer, opposite). Poet Valmiki Ramayana tells the search for Sita, Ravana kidnapped Rama's wife, to Suwarnadwipa ("Island of Gold", the island of Sumatra is now estimated to) located in Dwipantara Islands.

The Arabs called the island as Jaza'ir al-Jawi (Java Island). Latin name for frankincense, benzoe, derived from the Arabic name, luban ox ("incense of Java"), because the Arab traders of incense obtain sumatrana Styrax trees that used to grow only in Sumatra. To this day pilgrims we are often called "Java man" by the Arabs, including for people from outside Java, Indonesia once. Also known in Arabic names Samathrah (Sumatra), Sholibis (Sulawesi Island), and Sundah (Sunda) called kulluh Jawi ("all Java").

The Europeans who first came to believe that Asia is only made up of Arabs, Persia, India, and China. For them, the area stretching between Persia and China are all Indian. South Asia peninsula they called "Indian Home" and mainland Southeast Asia called "Indies Back", while the islands gained the name of the Indian Archipelago (Indische Archipel, Indian Archipelago, l'Archipel Indien) or East Indies (Oost Indie, East Indies, Indes Orientales ). Another name that would also use the "Malay Archipelago" (Maleische Archipel, Malay Archipelago, l'Archipel Malais).
Political units that are under the Dutch colonial official names Nederlandsch-Indie (Dutch East Indies). 1942-1945 Japanese occupation authorities use the term to-Indo (East Indies) to refer to conquests in the islands.

Eduard Douwes Dekker (1820-1887), known under the pseudonym Multatuli, never use specific names to mention the islands of Indonesia, namely "Insulinde", which means also "Indian Archipelago" (in Latin "insula" means island). The name "Insulinde" This was less popular, though never a newspaper's name and organization of the movement at the beginning of the 20th century.



In 1847 in Singapore published an annual journal, the Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia (JIAEA, BI: "Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia")), which is managed by James Richardson Logan (1819-1869), a Scotsman who earned his bachelor of law from the University of Edinburgh. Then in 1849 a British ethnologist nation, George Samuel Windsor Earl (1813-1865), joined as editor of the magazine JIAEA.

In 1850, JIAEA volume IV, pages 66-74, Earl wrote an article On the Leading Characteristics of the Papuan, Australian and Malay-Polynesian Nations ("The Leading Characteristics of Papua Nations, Australia and the Malay-Polynesian"). Earl in the article confirms that the time has come for the people of the Indian Archipelago or Malay Archipelago to have a unique name (a distinctive name), it is not appropriate for the Indian name and is often confused with another mention of India. Earl put forward two options name: Indunesia or Malayunesia ("nesos" in Greek means "island"). On page 71 an article was written

"... Residents of the Indian Archipelago or Malay Archipelago each will be" The Indunesia "or" People Malayunesia "".
Earl himself has said choosing a name Malayunesia (Malay Archipelago) than Indunesia (Indian Islands), because Malayunesia very appropriate for the Malay race, while Indunesia can also be used to Ceylon (as Sri Lanka time) and the Maldives (as foreign to the Maldives Islands). Earl also argues that the language used throughout the Malay archipelago. In writing the Earl's use of the term and not use the term Malayunesia Indunesia.

In Volume IV JIAEA also, pages 252-347, James Richardson Logan write an article The Ethnology of the Indian Archipelago ("Ethnology of the Indian Archipelago"). In early writings, Logan also stated the need to name specific to the islands of our homeland, because the term Indian Archipelago ("Indian Islands") is too long and confusing. Logan then picked up the name of Earl Indunesia discarded, and replaced with the letter u letter o that his words better. Thus was born the term Indonesia.

And it proves that some people still believe that the European population in the Indian archipelago, an epithet which is maintained because it was already familiar in Europe.
Indonesia for the first time the word appears in the world with the printed text on  in Logan

"Mr. Earl suggested the term ethnography" Indunesian ", but reject it and support the" Malayunesian ". I prefer a purely geographical term" Indonesia ", which is only a shorter synonym for the islands of the Indian or Indian Islands"

When proposing the name "Indonesia" Logan does not seem to realize that in the future the name will be the official name. Since then Logan has consistently used the name "Indonesia" in scientific writings, and the use of this term is slowly spreading among scientists fields of ethnology and geography.


In 1884 the professor of ethnology at the University of Berlin named Adolf Bastian (1826-1905) published a book Indonesien oder die Inseln Malayischen Archipel des ("Indonesia or islands in the Malay Archipelago") as many as five volumes, containing the results of his research when it wanders the islands in 1864 until 1880. Bastian is the book that popularized the term "Indonesia" among the Dutch scholar, so that could arise assumption that the term "Indonesia" Bastian's creation. Opinion that is not true that, among others listed in the Encyclopedie van Nederlandsch-Indie 1918. In fact, Bastian took the term "Indonesia" is from the writings of Logan.

Natives who first used the term "Indonesia" is Suwardi Suryaningrat (Ki Hajar Dewantara). When discharged to the Netherlands in 1913 he established a press office with the name Indonesische Persbureau.
Indonesisch name (Dutch pronunciation for "Indonesia") is also introduced as a substitute Indies ("Ocean") by Prof. Cornelis van Vollenhoven (1917). Correspondingly, inlander ("native") is replaced by Indonesians ("Indonesian").

Politics

In the decade of the 1920s, the name "Indonesia" is a scientific term in ethnology and geography were taken over by the leaders of Indonesia's independence movement, thus the name "Indonesia" finally has a political meaning, the identity of a people who fight for independence. As a result, the Dutch government began to get suspicious and wary of Logan's use of the word creation.

In 1922 at the initiative of Mohammad Hatta, a student Handels Hoogeschool (Higher School of Economics) in Rotterdam, students and student organizations in the Netherlands East Indies (which formed in 1908 as the Indische Vereeniging) Vereeniging changed its name to Indonesische or Perhimpoenan Indonesia. Their magazine, Indian Poetra, renamed Indonesia Merdeka.

Bung Hatta confirmed in writing,

"State of the upcoming Merdeka Indonesia (de Vrije Indonesische toekomstige staat) impossible-called" Dutch East Indies ". Also not" Indian "course, because it may cause errors with the original India. For us the name of Indonesia declared a political objective (een Politiek Doel ), because they represent and aspire to a homeland in the future, and to make it happen every person Indonesia (Indonesians) will strive with all effort and ability. "

In Indonesia Dr. Sutomo Indonesische Study Club founded in 1924. That year the Indian Communist Union changed its name to the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI). In 1925 Jong Islamieten Bond form Nationaal Indonesische scouting Padvinderij (Natipij). That the three organizations in the country which first used the name "Indonesia". Finally the name "Indonesia" was named the name of homeland, nation, and language of the density-Pemoedi Pemoeda Indonesia dated October 28, 1928, now known as the Youth Pledge.


In August 1939 three members of the Volksraad (People's Council; parliament the Dutch East Indies), Muhammad Husni Thamrin, Wiwoho Purbohadidjojo, and Sutardjo Kartohadikusumo, filed a motion to the Dutch Government that the name was unveiled as the replacement name Indonesie "Nederlandsch-Indie". This request was rejected.
With the occupation of Japan on March 8, 1942, gone are the name of "Dutch East Indies". On August 17, 1945, following the declaration of Independence, was born of the Republic of Indonesia.



History of Indonesia covers a very long time span that began in prehistoric times by the discovery of "Java Man" which was 1.7 million years ago. The period of Indonesian history can be divided into five age: pre-colonial era, the emergence of the kingdoms of the Hindu-Buddhist and Islam in Java and Sumatra, which mainly relies on trade; the Colonial Era, the influx of Europeans (mainly Dutch) who want to spice lead to colonization by Netherlands for about 3.5 centuries between the beginning of the 17th century until the mid-20th century; Era of Independence First, the post-Independence Indonesia (1945) until the fall of Sukarno (1966); Era New Order, 32-year reign of Suharto (1966 -1998) and the Reform Era that lasted until now.


The main article for this section are: the archipelago in the prehistoric period
Geologically, the area of ​​modern Indonesia (for convenience, hereinafter called the Nusantara) a meeting between the three major continental plates: the Eurasian Plate, the Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific Plate (see article Geological Indonesia). Islands of Indonesia as it is currently formed during the melting of ice after the end of the Ice Age, about 10,000 years ago.



Replication of Java Man cranium was first discovered in the Sangiran
In the Pleistocene, when it was still connected to mainland Asia, entered the first settlers. The first evidence that indicates the earliest inhabitants were Homo erectus fossils from Java Man is the 2 million to 500,000 years ago. The discovery of the remains "Flores man" (Homo floresiensis) in Liang Bua, Flores, opening the possibility of survival is still H. erectus until the last Ice Age.

Homo sapiens first entered the archipelago from the estimated 100,000 years ago through the coastal strip of Asia West Asia, and at about 60 000 to 70 000 years ago has reached New Guinea and Australia. [3] Those who berfenotipe dark skin and curly hair meeting, the ancestors of indigenous Melanesians (including Papua) now and bring the culture of hatchet shaped (Paleolithic). Waves of Austronesian-speaking immigrants to come in waves Neolithic culture since 3000 BC from southern China through Formosa and the Philippines took a square pickaxe culture (Dong Son culture). This migration process is part of the occupation of the Pacific. Mongoloid population characterized by the arrival of this wave tends to the west, urged residents to the east early or spouse mixed with the locals and to the physical characteristics of the population and the Maluku Nusa Tenggara. These immigrants brought with agricultural techniques, including rice cultivation in paddy fields (at the latest evidence since the 8th century BC), raising buffalo, bronze and iron processing, weaving techniques, megalithic practices, as well as the worship of spirits ( animism) as well as sacred objects (dynamism). In the first century BC had formed settlements and small kingdoms, and it may have entered India due to the influence of the trust trade relationship.

 pre-colonial era


 Early history


See also: History of the archipelago
Indian scholars have written about Dwipantara or Dwipa Java Hindu kingdom in Java and Sumatra around 200 BC. Initial physical evidence that says about the character of Hinduism in the two kingdoms of the 5th century, namely: The Kingdom of the master Tarumanagara West Java and the Kingdom of the Mahakam River in the coastal Kutai, Kalimantan. In the year 425 Buddhism has reached the region.
At a time when Europe entered the Renaissance, the archipelago has had a legacy of thousands of years old civilizations with two great kingdoms that Srivijaya in Sumatra and Majapahit in Java, coupled with dozens of small kingdoms which often become more powerful neighbors vazal or connected in some kind of bond trading ( as in the Moluccas).

 Hindu-Buddhist kingdom

 History of the archipelago in the Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms era


Heritage monument inscription of King Purnawarman Taruma
At the 4th century until the 7th century in West Java are patterned Hindu-Buddhist kingdom is the kingdom Tarumanagara followed by Sunda kingdom until the 16th century. During the 7th century until the 14th century, Buddhist Srivijaya kingdom in Sumatra growing rapidly. Explorers Chinese I Ching visited the capital of Palembang around the year 670. At their peak, the Srivijaya controlled as far as West Java and the Malay Peninsula. The 14th century also witnessed the rise of a Hindu kingdom in East Java, the Majapahit. Duke of Majapahit between the years 1331 to 1364, Gajah Mada had gained control of the territory which now are mostly Indonesia and its almost all the Malay Peninsula. Legacy of the Gajah Mada, including the codification of law and in Javanese culture, as seen in the epic Ramayana.



 Kingdom of Islam

Main article: History of the archipelago in the era of the Islamic empire
Islam as a government presence in Indonesia around the 12th century, but in fact Islam had already come to Indonesia in the 7th century AD. At that time there has been a busy shipping lanes and the international nature through the Strait of Malacca linking the Tang Dynasty in China, the Srivijaya in Southeast Asia and West Asia Umayyad dynasty in 7th century.

According to Chinese sources by the end of the third quarter the 7th century, Arab traders became the leader of an Arab Muslim settlements on the coast of Sumatra. Islam also gives effect to the existing political institutions. This is apparent in the year 100 H (718 AD) King of Srivijaya Jambi named Srindravarman send a letter to the Caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz of the Umayyad Caliphate request sent preachers who could explain Islam to her. The letter said: "From the King of Kings who is the descendant of a thousand kings, whose wife is also grandson of a thousand kings, who in the animal cages are a thousand elephants, which in its territory there are two rivers that irrigate the tree aloe, fragrance spices, nutmeg and lime lines that fragrant scent to reach a distance of 12 miles, to the King of Arabia are not associating other gods with Allah. I have sent you the gift, which is actually a gift that is not so much, but just a sign of friendship. I want you to send me someone who can teach Islam to me and explained to me about the laws. "Two years later, the year 720 AD, court of King Srindravarman, which was originally Hindu, converted to Islam. Sriwijaya Jambi also known as the 'Sribuza Islam'. Unfortunately, in the year 730 AD by Srivijaya Srivijaya Jambi Palembang prisoner who still adhere to Buddhism.

Islam continues to mengokoh into political institutions that carry Islam. For example, an Islamic sultanate called Peureulak Sultanate was established on 1 Muharram 225 H or 12 November 839 AD Another example is the kingdom of Ternate. Islam entered the kingdom in the Maluku islands this year 1440. A Muslim king named Bayanullah.

Islam then spread the Sultanate semikin his teachings to the people and through assimilation, replacing the Hindu as the core beliefs at the end of the 16th century in Java and Sumatra. Retaining only the Balinese Hindu majority. In the islands to the east, religion, Christian and Islamic clergy are known already active in the 16th century and 17, and currently there is a large majority of both religions in the islands.
The spread of Islam through trade relations outside the archipelago; this, because the preachers are spreading propaganda or representatives of the Islamic government that came from outside Indonesia, then to support themselves and their families, the preachers of this work by way of trade, the preacher spreading even this Islam to the traders of the natives, to the merchants, embraced Islam and also transmit to the rest of the population, as most merchants and experts was the first kingdom to adopt the new religion. Important Islamic empire including: Royal Ocean Pasai, Sultanate of Banten which established diplomatic ties with European countries, the Kingdom of Mataram, the Kingdom of Iha, Sultanate of Ternate and Tidore Sultanate in the Moluccas.

 Colonial Era


Portuguese and Spanish Colonization

Main article: History of Portuguese and Spanish archipelago Period
Afonso (sometimes also written Alfonso) de Albuquerque. Because of this character, which makes the archipelago region then known by the Europeans and the beginning of colonization by the Portuguese centuries with other European nations, especially Britain and the Netherlands.

Of the Tagus River which empties into the Atlantic Ocean that the Portuguese fleet sailed the Atlantic Ocean, which may take a month to three months, through the African Cape of Good Hope, towards the Straits of Malacca. From this exploration to proceed to the Maluku Islands in search of spices, gold equivalent commodity at the time.

"In the 16th century when the adventure begins usually sailors Catholic country was blessed by the priest and king before sailing over the River Tagus," said Teresa. Monastery of St. Jeronimus or Dos Jeronimos Monastery in Portuguese was founded by King Manuel in 1502 at the time of Vasco da Gama start the adventure to the east.

Maritime Museum or the Museu de Marinha Portuguese call it was founded by King Luis on July 22, 1863 in honor of the Portuguese maritime history.

In addition to the statue in the park, painting of Afonso de Albuquerque is also a museum's collection. Below the painting reads, "Governor India 1509-1515. Founder of the Portuguese Empire in India, based in Ormuz, Goa, and Malacca. Pioneering policy of sea power as the central force of the kingdom ". Portuguese trade in various goods also exhibited at the museum, even a mound of pepper or pepper.
There are several motivations why the kingdom of Portugal to start an adventure to the east. Historians and archaeologists Uka Tjandrasasmita Islam in Indonesia and Portugal book: Five Hundred Years of Historical Relationship (Cepesa, 2002), citing a number of historians, not to mention there is only one motivation of the Portuguese Empire came to Asia. Expansion may be summed up in three words Portuguese language, namely feitoria, Fortaleza, and Igreja. Literally means gold, glory, and the church or trade, military domination, and the spread of Catholicism.

According to Uka, Albuquerque, the Portuguese governor of the Estado da India Second, the Portuguese Empire in Asia, is the main architect of Portuguese expansion into Asia. Of Goa, he led an expedition to Malacca straight and got there early in July 1511 brought 15 large and small ships and 600 soldiers. He and his troops defeated the Malacca August 10, 1511. Since the Portuguese controlled the spice trade from Asia to Europe. After mastering of Malacca, the Portuguese expedition led by Antonio de Abreu reached the Moluccas, the spice center.

 The period of the Portuguese archipelago of Glory

Period 1511-1526, for 15 years, the archipelago became an important maritime port for the Kingdom of Portugal, which regularly become a maritime route to the island of Sumatra, Java, Banda, and the Moluccas.

In 1511 the Portuguese defeated the Malacca Empire.
In 1512 the Portuguese to establish communication with the Kingdom of Sunda to sign trade agreements, especially pepper. Trade agreement is then realized on August 21, 1522 in the form of contract documents are prepared in duplicate, one copy to the king of Sunda and one for the king of Portugal. Built on the same day a tablet called the Sunda-Portugal Agreement inscription in a place that is currently the corner of Clove Road and Jalan Kali Besar I East, West Jakarta. With this agreement allowed the Portuguese to build forts in the Sunda storeroom or coconut.

In the year 1512 also Afonso de Albuquerque sent Antonio and Francisco Serrao Albreu to lead the fleet to find a way to where the spices in the Moluccas. Along the way, they stopped at Madura, Bali, and Lombok. By using nachodas of Java, the fleet arrived in Banda Islands, Maluku continues to the North until arriving at Ternate.
Portuguese presence in the waters and islands of Indonesia that has left traces of history that to this day is still maintained by local communities in the archipelago, especially Flores, Solor and the Moluccas, in Jakarta Kampong monument located in the northern part of Jakarta, the Kali Cakung, Cilincing beach and soil Marunda.

The first Europeans were the Portuguese who discovered the Moluccas, in the year 1512. 2 At that time the Portuguese fleet, under the leadership of each of the Anthony d'Abreu and Francisco Serau, landed in Banda Islands and Turtle Islands. Once they make friends with the residents and local kings - such as the kingdom on the island of Ternate Ternate, the Portuguese were given permission to establish a fort in Pikaoli, nor may the State Hitu old, and Mamala Ambon.Namun Island spice trade relations did not last long , because the Portuguese introduced a system of monopoly as well as doing evangelism. One of his famous missionary Francis Xavier. Arrived in Ambon 14 February 1546, then proceeded to Ternate, arriving in 1547, and tirelessly visited the islands in the Maluku Islands to spread the religion. Portuguese and Ternate friendship ended in 1570. War with the Sultan Babullah for 5 years (1570-1575), the Portuguese had to leave from Ternate and Tidore and driven to Ambon.


Maluku people's resistance against the Portuguese, the Dutch used to set foot in the Moluccas. In 1605, the Dutch succeeded in forcing the Portuguese to give up its defenses in Ambon to Steven van der Hagen and the Tidore to Cornelisz Sebastiansz. Similarly Kambelo British fort, the island of Seram, destroyed by the Dutch. Since then the Dutch managed to control most of the Moluccas. Position of the Dutch in the Moluccas VOC grew stronger with the establishment in 1602, and since then the Dutch became sole ruler of the Moluccas. Under the leadership of Jan Pieterszoon Coen, Chief Operating VOC, clove trade in the Moluccas sepunuh under the control of VOC for nearly 350 years. For this purpose the VOC did not hesitate to drive out competitors; Portuguese, Spanish, and English. Even tens of thousands of people become victims of brutality VOC Maluku.

then they built a fort at Ternate in 1511, then in 1512 built the Citadel in North Sulawesi Amurang. Portuguese lost the war with Spain the North Sulawesi area submitted in the Spanish rule (1560 to 1660). Portuguese kingdom later united with the Kingdom of Spain. (Read the book: Portuguese Colonial History in Indonesia, by David DS Lumoindong). 17th century merchant fleet came VOC (Dutch) who later managed to expel the Portuguese from Ternate, so then Portuguese East Timor and master retreat (since 1515).

Colonialism and Imperialism in Indonesia began to spread around the 15th century, which preceded the landing of the Portuguese in Malacca and the Dutch, led Cornellis de Houtman in 1596, to find the source of the spice and trade.

Popular Resistance to the Portuguese

The arrival of the Portuguese to Malay Peninsula and the Maluku Islands, is an order of the country to trade.

 Popular Resistance against Portuguese Malacca


In 1511, the Portuguese fleet led by Albuquerque attacked Malacca Empire. To attack the colonial Portuguese in Malacca which occurred in 1513 failed because the Portuguese armed forces and more powerful. In 1527, the fleet under the command of Demak Fatahillah / Falatehan can master Banten, Suda Coconut, and Cirebon. Portuguese fleet could be destroyed by Fatahillah / Falatehan and he later changed the name to Jayakarta Sunda Kelapa which means a big victory, which later became Jakarta.

Resistance to the Portuguese people of Aceh

Beginning in 1554 until the year 1555, the Portuguese efforts failed because the Portuguese got stiff resistance from the people of Aceh. At the time of Sultan Iskandar Muda in power, the Kingdom of Aceh had attacked the Portuguese in Malacca in 1615 and 1629.

Popular Resistance to the Portuguese Moluccas

The Portuguese first landed in the Moluccas in 1511. Subsequent arrival of the Portuguese in 1513. However, Ternate was harmed by the Portuguese because of their greed to obtain monopoly profits through the efforts of the spice trade.
In 1533, the Sultan of Ternate calls upon all people of Maluku to expel the Portuguese in the Moluccas. In 1570, the people led by the Sultan of Ternate Hairun can return to fight against the Portuguese, but can be fooled by the Portuguese until it was killed in the Fort Duurstede. Baabullah was led by Sultan in 1574. Expelled the Portuguese settled in the island of Timor.


Spanish Colonization

Main article: History of the Spanish archipelago Period
Ferdinand Magellan (sometimes also written Ferdinand) Magelan. Because of this character, who led the first fleet around the world and prove that the Earth is round, when it was known by Europeans of the earth flat. Commencement of colonization for centuries by Spain with other European nations, especially the Portuguese, English and Dutch.

Pacific Ocean from Spain to the Portuguese fleet that sailed the Pacific Ocean, past the Cape of Good Hope of Africa, towards the Straits of Malacca. From this exploration to proceed to the Maluku Islands in search of spices, gold equivalent commodity at the time.

"In the 16th century when the adventure begins usually sailors Catholic country was blessed by the priest and king before sailing through the ocean.

On 20 September 1519, San Antonio, Concepción, Victoria, and Santiago, the largest to the smallest-carrier followed Magellan, Trinidad, the second largest ship, as they set sail for South America. On December 13, they reached Brazil, and staring Henrique, or Sugarloaf Mountain, an impressive, they entered the bay of Rio de Janeiro a wonderful time to repair and fill supplies. Then they continued south into what is now Argentina, always searching for el paso, the elusive path that leads to another ocean. Meanwhile, the air gets colder and icebergs appear. Finally, on March 31, 1520, Magellan decided to spend the winter in the port of San Julián is cold.

The voyage now takes six times longer than the voyage Columbus sailed the Atlantic Ocean and the first-strait have not seen one yet! Morale began as cold weather in San Julián, and men, including some of the captains and officers, are desperate to go home. It is not surprising that the uprising. However, thanks to a swift and decisive action on the part of Magellan, it is thwarted and the two leaders are killed.
The presence of foreign ships in the harbor must have attracted a strong local-and large-bodied. Feel like a dwarf compared to these giants, the visitors said that the mainland Patagonia, from the Spanish word meaning "big foot"-to this day. They also observed a "sea wolves of the calf, as well as black and white swans are swimming under water, eat fish, and has a beak like a crow '. Of course none other than the seals and penguins!

Polar latitudes tend to experience a violent storm suddenly, and before the winter ended, the fleet suffered its first casualty of the small Santiago. However, fortunately the crew can be rescued from a sinking ship. After that, the four ships which still survive, like a small moth wings that were struck in the middle of the frozen ocean currents and not go away, struggling desperately to head south to colder waters, until October 21. Sailing in the pouring rain that freezes, all eyes are on a gap in the west. El paso? Yes! Finally, they turned and entered the strait later known as the Strait of Magellan! However, even this moment of victory is tarnished. San Antonio intentionally disappeared in the maze of straits and returned to Spain.
The third ship that still survive, diimpit by a narrow gulf between the snow-covered cliffs, with persistent sailing through the winding strait that. Brand watched so many fires in the south, possibly from the camp of the Indians, so they called the land of Tierra del Fuego, "Land of Fire".

Magellan arrived in the Philippines invites local residents and their leaders to embrace the Catholic religion. But the spirit is also a disaster, where later he was involved in a dispute between the tribes. Only with the help of the strength of 60 men, it affects about 1,500 natives, with the belief that despite having to fight the crossbow, an ancient rifle, but God would ensure his victory. But what happened was the contrary, he and a number of his subordinates were killed. Magellan at that time was about 41 years. Pigafetta faithful lament, "They killed a reflection, lights, entertainer, and our true guide '. A few days later, about 27 officers who only watch from their ship, killed by the chiefs who had previously friendly.

Due to the number of crew members who remained only a little, so it is not possible to use the three ships set sail, they then drown Concepción and sailed with two ships remaining, Trinidad and Victoria to their final destination, the Spice Islands. After the second vessel is filled with spices, then the two ships sailed back separately. But one of the two ships, the Trinidad was captured by the Portuguese and then the crew imprisoned.

However, Victoria, under the command of former rebel Juan Sebastián de Elcano, escaped. While avoiding all the ports except for one, they take the risk of passing the Cape of Good Hope route around Portugal. However, without stopping to fill the supply is an expensive strategy. When they finally reached Spain on 6 September 1522-three years since their departure, only 18 men were sick and helpless survivors. However, it can be argued that they were the first to sail around the earth. Juan Sebastián de Elcano was a hero. What an amazing thing, cargo weighing 26 tons of spices Victoria defray the costs of the whole expedition!

When a ship that survived, Victoria, returned to port after completing a trip around the world the first time, only 18 men of the 237 men who were on board early departure. Among survivors, there were two Italians, Antonio Pigafetta and Martino de Judicibus. Martino de Judicibus (Spanish: Martín de Judicibus) adalan people of Genoa which acts as the Head Waiter. It works by Ferdinand Magellan on its historic journey to find a western route to the Spice Islands of Indonesia. The history of his journey immortalized in the nominative registration Archivo General de Indias in Seville, Spain. The family name is called by the Latin patronimik proper, namely: "de Judicibus". At first he was assigned to the caravel Concepción, one of Magellan's five Spanish fleet. Martino de Judicibus start this expedition with the title of captain. (Read more in the book "History of Colonial Spanish in Indonesia" by David DS Lumoindong.


Before mastering the Philippine archipelago in 1543, Spain made the island of Manado Tua as a haven for fresh water. Of the island the Spanish ships entering the North-Sulawesi mainland via rivers Tondano. Spanish travelers relationships with rural residents is established through a barter economy began in Uwuran (now the city Amurang) edge of the river Rano I Apo. Barter trade of rice, amber, honey and other forest products and fish and salt.

Manado and Minahasa Coffee warehouse to be important for Spain, because the fertility of the soil and used for planting kofi Spain from South America, to be marketed to the Chinese mainland. For it was built as a center of commercial Manado for Chinese traders who market kofi kedaratan China. Manado's name included in the map by a map of the world, Nicolas_Desliens, in 1541. Manado is also a public appeal by kofi China as an export commodity Manado and Minahasa inland communities. The Chinese merchants pioneered the development of warehouse kofi (now around the Market 45) which later became Chinatown and the settlement. The immigrants from mainland China with the community mingled and assimilated to form the interior of a pluralistic society in Manado and Minahasa with derivative Spanish, Portuguese and Dutch.

The appearance of the name of Manado in North Sulawesi with a variety of commercial activities undertaken Portuguese Spanish main attraction since his position in Ternate. Approach to the Portuguese Catholic missions sent to the ground Manado and Minahasa in 1563 and developed a religious and Catholic education. Adu race effect in the Celebes Sea

Between Minahasa with Ternate there are two small islands named Mayu and Tafure. Then the island was used as a transit port by sailors Minahasa. At that time the Portuguese and Spanish rivalry in which Spain won the two islands. Pandey Tombulu origin who became king on the island run by a fleet of boats back to the Minahasa, but as the season winds west and stranded in Gorontalo. Pandey boy named Potangka continue the journey and arrived in Ratahan. In Ratahan, he was appointed commander of the war because he was an expert shot guns and rifles from the Portuguese to fight the attacker Mongondouw in the region. In 1563 the region of Ternate Ratahan known by the name "Watasina" because when the fleet attacked Kora-kora menhalau Ternate to Spain from the region (the book "De Katholieken hare en Missie" AJ Van Aernsbergen writing). Portuguese and Spanish in 1570 conspired to kill the king of Ternate, so that makes a big fuss in Ternate. When that many Muslim traders fled to Ternate and Tidore Ratahan. Pirate attacks increased in Ratahan through Bentenan, pirates used the slaves as rowers. The pirate captive slaves fled to Ratahan when night destroyed a pirate boat fleet Ratahan soldiers - barely. Tentative conclusions can we draw from this story collection is the original inhabitants of this region is Touwuntu in the lowlands to the beach Toulumawak in the mountains, they are the descendants Opok Soputan the seventh century. OPO name 'Soputan appears again as the head of the 16th century walak region with head walak Raliu brothers and Potangkuman. 16th century the population of this region comes from the natives and migrants from Tombulu, Tompakewa (Tontemboan), Tonsea, Ternate and the prisoner of the pirates may Sangihe.

Struggle Against Spain Minahasa

Oki Queen revolves around the year 1644 until 1683. At that time, there was a great war between the child's tribe Tombatu (also called Toundanow or Tonsawang) with the Spaniards. The war was triggered by the child's tribe Tombatu displeasure against the Spaniards who want to master the trade of commodities, especially rice, which is the result of the earth at that time the mainstay of the people. In addition, anger is also caused by the wickedness of the Spaniards against the local residents, especially to his daughter. The war has resulted in 40 deaths of Spanish troops in Kali and Stone (Stone Mortar location now - ed). Naasnya, in the child's tribe Tombatu, has resulted in the death of Commander Monde along with nine soldiers. Commander Monde is none other than her husband Queen Oki. According to the one told in this paper, Commander Monde killed after fiercely defending his wife, Queen Oki.Menurut PA Gosal, et al., In the reign of Queen Oki, the son of the tribe Toundanow (another name for the child's tribe or Tonsawang Tombatu) that inhabit the lake Bulilin live prosperous, safe and secure. "For the wisdom and the wisdom to lead children Toudanow the tribe as well as the Queen passed Oki Tonaas or Balian. During Queen kepemimpinnan Oki, Spain and the Netherlands have never mastered or colonize Toundanow child, "
Minahasa war against Spain

The crew of Spanish sailors living in Minahasa and even mingle with the community. They married women Minahasa, so that their descendants became brothers with indigenous people.
In 1643 a war broke out Minaesa States against the Spanish empire. in a war in Tompaso, Spanish troops assisted the king's army was beaten Loloda Mokoagouw II defeat, the union backed by the combined forces Minaesa, chased up to the beach but
In 1694 in a war in Tompaso, the king's army was beaten Loloda Mokoagouw II defeat, the union backed by the combined forces of Minahasa, chased down to the beach but is prevented and mediated by the Resident VOC Herman Jansz Steynkuler. In the year 1694 of September 21, was held a peace agreement, and set the border is the river Poigar Minahasa. Minaesa States troops from the occupied Tompaso New Tompaso, Rumoong settled in Rumoong Down, down Kawangkoan Kawangkoan inhabit, and so forth.

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